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•J- T. LENORUM 

AMERICAN STANDARD 



NATIONAL 
PLUMBING CODE 

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR PLUMBING 

ASA A40.8-I955 

UDC-696.1.001.3 




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The American Public Health Association 

Society of Mechanical Engineers 



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7 

Y OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS 

29 West 39th Street, New York 1 8, N. Y. 

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AMERICAN STANDARD 



NATIONAL 
PLUMBING CODE 

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR PLUMBING 

AQA A^n fi 1QSS CHAPTERS 1 through 14 

HOH rttU.O lajd ^^d APPENDICES 

UDC-696.1.001.3 



S^poniori 

The American Public Health Association 
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 

THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS 

29 West 39th Street, New York 1 8, N. Y. 



ft Sl^^ 

^ ^ 6 S 



ARCH & 

FINE ARTS 

LIBRARY 



Copyright, 1955 

THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS 

Printed in U.S.A. 




Any part of this standard may be quoted. Credit lines should read: "Ex- 
tracted from American Standard National Plumbing Code (ASA A40 .8-1955) 
with the permission of the publisher, The American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers, 29 West 39th Street, New York IS, N.Y. 



FOREWORD 

THE need for a generally accepted standard code of minimum 
requirements for plumbing has been recognized throughout 
the country for a considerable time. From time to time various 
organizations in this field have published recommended code 
requirements and some of these have had considerable influence 
on local codes. 

An early and comprehensive effort in this direction was made 
by the Subcommittee on Plumbing of the Building Code Com- 
mittee of the U.S. Department of Commerce. The work of this 
committee resulted in the publication in 1924 of BH2 "Recom- 
mended Minimum Requirements for Plumbing in Dwellings and 
Similar Buildings". This was followed by several revisions of 
which the last, entitled I^H13 ^Recommended Minimum Re- 
quirements for Plumbing." was issued in 1932. The National 
Association of MasterPlumbers published its "Standard Plumb- 
ing Code" in 1933 and the latest" revision of this was made in 
1942. In 1940 the Subcommittee- crf^Plumbing of the Central 
Housing Committee on Research, 'Design, and Construction 
issued a report BMS66 "Plumbing Manual" the provisions of 
which formed the basis for regulation of wartime plumbing. In 
addition many states have enacted laws regulating the design 
and installation of plum.bing equipment. Cities also have mun- 
icipal ordinances and rules governing this type of equipment 
and its installation. 

The Sectional Committee on Minimum Requirements for 
Plumbing and Standardization of Plumbing Equipment, A40, 
was organized under the procedure of the American Standards 
Association in August, 1928. Therefore, in 1934, when the 
Subcommittee on Plumbing of the Building Code Committee of 
the U.S. Department of Commerce was discontinued, the ASA 
added the task of setting up minimum requirements for plumb- 
ing to the scope of Sectional Committee A40. 



In April, 1936, Subcommittee No. 1 was organized to under- 
take this task and although it held a number of meetings during 
the years 1936 to 1939, little progress was made. However, 
in July, 1939, this committee was discharged and organizations 
known to be interested in this subject were invited to nam.e 
official representatives on a new representative subcommittee 
whose duty it would be to develop an American Standard Plumb- 
ing Code. The organization meeting of Subcommittee No. 1 
was held in New York on April l6, 1941, at which a subgroup 
was appointed to study the plumbing codes now available and 
to develop a tentative draft of an American Standard Plumbing 
Code. At the time thirty (30) national organizations and govern- 
ment bodies were represented on Subcommittee No. 1. 

The drafting subgroup held its first meeting in April, 1941, 
followed by numerous meetings and informal conferences. 

Its first report was issued in the spring of 1942 in the form 
of seven sections of the proposed code which were distributed 
to interested individuals and organizations for criticism and 
comment. These were very favorably received and its second 
report covering eight additional sections, dated June, 1944, 
was also considered and met with a favorable reception. 

Following approval of the sectional committee and the spon- 
sors, this proposal was submitted to the American Standards 
A^ssociation for approval and designation as an American 
standard. This was given on February 17, 1949, and the com- 
nittee was discharged. 

Following the publication of this standard, the sponsors of 
:he A40 project, recognizing that several other plumbing codes 
lad been developed in various parts of the country, agreed to 
participate in a concerted effort to Ifarmonize the requirements 
of these codes. Accordingly, a coordinating committee was 
formed, composed of representatives of organizations sponsor- 
ing plumbing codes, and charged with the responsibility of 
producing a code of practical minimum safety standards for 
plumbing equipment within buildings. This committee issued a 
report of its findings in 1951. 

The requirements and recommendations were based on re- 
search in the field of plumbing partly financed by HHFA and 
the U.S. Department of Commerce, conducted at the National 
Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., University of Iowa, 
University of Illinois, U.S. Public Health Service Environmen- 
tal Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, and other nationally recognized 
laboratories. This research brought greater understanding of 



trie phenomena of hydraulics and pneumatics within a plumbing 
service and combined with the practical experience brought 
to the work by the committee members resulted in a carefully 
weighed report. 

Cities and municipalities without plumbing codes or with 
antiquated plumbing codes and eager for an authoritative guide 
to improving conditions, indicated that this report as a basis 
for an American Standard, would fill a long-felt need. 

Therefore, the sponsors of the A40 project conducted a sur- 
vey of all organizations known to be interested in any phase 
of the project. The response was overwhelmingly favorable; 
the few suggestions for improvement were considered by the 
coordinating committee, and were incorporated into the draft 
of a proposed American Standard National Plumbing Code. This 
proposed standard, following approval by the sponsor organi- 
zations, was submitted to the American Standards Association, 
and received designation as an American Standard under date 
of January 25, 1955. 

It is hoped that persons interested in the plumbing field 
either as plumbers, plumbing inspectors, sanitary engineers, 
health and housing administrators, and others, will from time 
to time submit comments which will be helpful in keeping the 
Code as nearly up to date as possible in its subsequent edi- 
tions or revisions. 



AMERICAN STANDAPD A40 
Sponsors 
AMERICAN PUBLIC HEALTH ASSOCIATION 
AMERICAN SOCIETY of MECHANICAL ENGINEERS 

NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE COORDINATING COMMITTEE 



Chairman 
F.M. Dawson, Dean 
College of Engineering 
State University of Iowa 
Iowa City, Iowa 



Executive Secretary 

Vincent T. Manas 

Nat'l Plumbing Code Commitcee 

4513 Potomac Ave., N.W. 

Washington 7, D.C. 



American Public Health Association 

M.W. Cowles 
Uiiliam H. Cary, Jr. 
Ralph Fuhrman 

American Society of Mechanical Engineers 

F.N?. Dawson 
Albert H. Morgan 
Vincent T. Manas 

American Society of Sanitary Engineering 
Herbert L. Schaller 
Homer Yetman 
Richard Tait 

Building Officials Conference of America 

Glen Shields 
Carl Bash 



Conference of State Sanitary Engineers 
Malcolm C. Hope 
Earl Devendorf 

National Association of Plumbing Contractors 

Henry S. Blank 
William A. Landers 
John M. Rhoades 

Western Plumbing Officials Association 

Robert A. Wood 
Stephen I. Smoot 
G. H. Hilliker 



Technical Advisor 

Herbert N. Eaton 

Research Advisor 

Robert S. Wyly 

National Bureau of Standards 

Sanitary Engineering Advisor 

Malcolm C. Hope 

Editorial Advisor 

George N. Thompson 



COOPERATING AGENCIES 

Housing and Home Finance Agency 
U. S. Department of Commerce 



Laboratory Research 



National Bureau of Standards, 
Plumbing Research 



John L. French 
Robert S. Wyly 



State University of Iowa, 

Dean of Engineering F. M. Dawson 



Advisory Committee to the Coordinating Committee 



George N. Thompson, Chairman 



Laurence Shuman, Secretary 



Department of the Army 

Department of the Navy 

Department of Commerce 

Department of Agriculture 

Veterans Administration 

General Services Administration . . 

U.S. Public Health Service 

Housing and Home Finance Agency. 
Office of the Administrator . . • . 



Arthur R. Geiger 
R. J. Potbury 
C.A. Lewis 
George N. Thompson 
Harry L. Garver 
N. C. Hepburn 

E. W. Goodwin 
Malcolm C. Hope 
Laurence Shuman 

F. W. McGhan 



CONTENTS 



Foreword iii 

National Plumbing Code Committees vi 

Basic Principles ix 

Chapter 1. Definitions 13 

Chapter 2. General Regulations 26 

Chapter 3. Materials — Quality and Weight 33 

Chapter 4. Joints and Connections 41 

Chapter 5. Traps and Cleanouts 46 

Chapter 6. Interceptors, Separators and Backwater 

Valves 51 

Chapter 7. Plumbing Fixtures 56 

Chapter 8. Hangers and Supports 67 

Chapter 9. Indirect Waste Piping and Special Wastes. . 69 

Chapter 10. Water Supply and Distribution 73 

Chapter 11. Drainage System 84 

Chapter 12. Vents and Venting 93 

Chapter 13. Storm Drains 104 

Chapter 14. Inspection, Tests and Maintenance 110 

(The following appendixes are not a part of the 
standard but are added for information.) 

Appendix A. Individual Water Supply 1 14 

Appendix B. Individual Sewage-Disposal System 118 

Appendix C. Air Gaps, Backwater Preventers and 

Drinking Fountain Standards 128 

Appendix D. Sizing the Water-Supply System 134 

Appendix E. Suggested Sections 151 

Appendix T.C. Trailer Coach Standards 157 

Appendix T.P. Trailer Park Standards I66 



BASIC PRINCIPLES 



The basic principles of this Code are enunciated as basic 
goals in environmental sanitation worthy of accomplishment 
through properly designed, acceptably installed, and adequate- 
ly maintained plumbing systems. Some of the details of plumb- 
ing construction must vary, but the basic sanitary and safety 
principles are the same. The results desired and necessary to 
protect the health of the people are the same everywhere. 
While the following principles are not legally a part of the 
Code, they merit serious study. Furthermore, as unforeseen 
situations arise which are not covered in the body of the Code, 
the principles may serve to define the intent. 

Principle No. 1 — All premises intended for human habitation*^ 
occupancy, or use shall be -provided with a supply of pure 
and wholesome water, neither connected with unsafe water 
supplies nor subject to the hazards of backflow or back-__i 
siphonage. 

Principle No. 2 — Plumbing fixtures, devices, and appurten- 
ances shall be supplied with water in sufficient volume and 
at pressures adequate to enable them to function satisfac- 
torily and without undue noise under all normal conditions 
of use. 

Principle No. 3 — Plumbing shall be designed and adjusted tol 
use the minimum quantity of water consistent with proper 
performance and cleaning. — ' 

Principle No. 4 — Devices for heating and storing water shall 
be so designed and installed as to prevent dangers from ex- 
plosion through overheating. 

Principle No. 5 — Every building having plumbing fixtures in-- 
stalled and intended for human habitation, occupancy, or 
use on premises abutting on a street, alley, or easement in 
which there is a public sewer shall have a connection with 
the sewer. 

Principle No. 6 — Each family dwelling unit on premises abut- 
ting on a sewer or with a private sewage-disposal syste 



m 



BASIC PRINCIPLES 



shall have, at least, one water closet and one kitchen-type 
sink. It is further recommended that a lavatory and batntub 
or shower shall be installed to meet the basic requirements 
of sanitation and personal hygiene. 

All other structures for human occupancy or use on premi- 
ses abutting on a sewer or with a private sewage-disposal 
system shall have adequate sanitary facilities but in no case 
less than one water closet and one other fixture for cleans- 
ing purposes. 

Principle No. 7 — Plumbing fixtures shall be made of smooth 
nonabsorbent material, shall be free from concealed fouling 
surfaces, and shall be located in ventilated enclosures. 

Principle No. 8 — The drainage system shall be designed, con- 
structed, and maintained so as to guard against fouling, de- 
posit of solids, and clogging, and with adequate cleanouts 
so arranged that the pipes may be readily cleaned. 

Principle No. 9 — The piping of the plumbing system shall be 
of durable material, free from defective workmanship and so 
designed and constructed as to give satisfactory service for 
its reasonable expected life. 

Principle No. 10 — Each fixture directly connected to the drain- 
age system shall be equipped with a water-seal trap. 

Principle No. 11 — The drainage system shall be designed to 
provide an adequate circulation of air in all pipes with no 
danger of siphonage, aspiration, or forcing of trap seals 
under conditions of ordinary use. 

Principle No. 12 — Each vent terminal shall extend to the outer 
air and be so installed as to minimize the possibilities of 
clogging and the return of foul air to the building. 

Principle No. 13 — The plumbing system shall be subjected to 
such tests as will effectively disclose all leaks and defects 
in the work. 

Principle No. 14 — No substance which will clog the pipes, 
produce explosive mixtures, destroy the pipes or their joints. 



BASIC PRINCIPLES 



or interfere unduly with the sewage-disposal process shall 
be allowed to enter the building drainage system. 

Principle No. 15 — Proper protection shall be provided to pre- 
vent contamination of food, water, sterile goods, and similar 
materials by backflow of sewage. When necessary, the fix- 
ture, device, or appliance shall be connected indirectly with 
the building drainage system. 

Principle No. 16 — No water closet shall be located in a room 
or compartment which is not properly lighted and ventilated. 

Principle No. 17 — If water closets or other plumbing fixtures 
are installed in buildings where there is no sewer within a 
reasonable distance, suitable provision shall be made for 
disposing of the building sewage by some accepted method 
of sewage treatment and disposal. 

Principle No. 18 - Where a plumbing drainage system may be 
subject to backflow of sewage, suitable provision shall be 
made to prevent its overflow in the building. 

Principle No. 19 - Plumbing systems shall be maintained in 
a sanitary and serviceable condition. See definition 
"Plumbing." 

Principle No. 20 - All plumbing fixtures shall be so installed 
with regard to spacing as to be reasonably accessible for 
their intended use. 

Principle No. 21 - Plumbing shall be installed with due re- 
;£i,ard to preservation of the strength of structural members 
and prevention of damage to walls and other surfaces 
through fixture usage. 

Principle No. 22 - Sewage or other waste, from a plumbine 
system which may be deleterious to surface or sub-surface 
waters shall not be discharged into the ground or into any 
waterway unless it has first been rendered innocuoui, 
through subjection to some acceptable form of treatment. 



American Standard 

NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 

Chapter I 
DEFINITIONS 



1.1 GENERAL 

1.1.1. For the purpose of this code, the following terms 
shall have the meaning indicated in this chapter. 

1.1.2. No attempt is made to define ordinary words which 
are used in accordance with their established dictionary mean- 
ing except where the word has been loosely used and it is 
necessary to define its meaning as used in this code to avoid 
misunderstanding. 

1.1. 3« Because the primary purpose is to define terms 

rather than words, the definitions are arranged alphabetically 
according to the first word of the term rather than the noun. 

1.2 DEFINITION OF TERMS 

Administrative Authority. The Administrative Authority is 
the individual official, board, department, or agency established 
and authorized by a state, county, city, or other political sub- 
division created by law to administer and enforce the pro- 
visions of the plumbing code as adopted or amended. 

Air Gap, An air gap in a water-supply system is the un- 
obstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere be- 
tween the lowest opening from any pipe or faucet supplying 
water to a tank, plumbing fixture, or other device and the 
flood-level rim of the receptacle. 

Anchors. See Supports. 
January, 1955 

13 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



Approved, Approved means accepted or acceptable under 
an applicable specification stated or cited in this code, or 
accepted as suitable for the proposed use under procedures and 
powers of the Administrative Authority. 

Area Drain. An area drain is a receptacle designed to col- 
lect surface or rain water from an open area. 

Backflow. Backflow is the flow of water or other liquids, 
mixtures, or substances into the distributing pipes of a potable 
supply of water from any source or sources other than its in- 
tended source. (See back-siphonage.) 

Backflow Connection. Backflow connection or condition is 
any arrangement whereby backflow can occur. 

Backflow Preventer. A backflow preventer is a device or 
means to prevent backflow into the potable water system. 

Back'Siphonage, Back-siphonage is the flowing back of 
used, contaminated, or polluted water from a plumbing fixture 
or vessel into a water-supply pipe due to a negative pressure 
in such pipe. (See backflow.) 

Battery of Fixtures. A "battery of fixtures" is any group of 
two or more similar adjacent fixtures which discharge into a 
common horizontal waste or soil branch. 

Boiler Blow-Off. A boiler blow-off is an outlet on a boiler 
to permit emptying or discharge of sediment. 

Branch. A branch is any part of the piping system other 
than a main, riser, or stack. 

Branch, Fixture. See Fixture Branch, 

Branch, Horizontal. See Horizontal Branch. 

Branch Interval. A branch interval is a length of soil or 
waste stack corresponding in general to a story height, but in 
no case less than 8 feet within which the horizontal branches 
from one floor or story of a building are connected to the 
stack. 

Branch Vent. A branch vent is a vent connecting one or 
more individual vents with a vent stack or stack vent. 

Building. A building is a structure built, erected, and 
framed of component structural parts designed for the housing, 

14 



DEFINITIONS 



shelter, enclosure, or support of persons, animals, or property 
of any kind. 

Building Classification. Building classification is the 
arrangement adopted by the Administrative Authority for the 
designation of buildings in classes based upon their use or 
occupancy. 

Building Drairu The building (house) drain is that part of 
the lowest piping of a drainage system which receives the dis- 
charge from soil, waste, and other drainage pipes inside the 
walls of the building and conveys it to the building (house) 
sewer beginning 3 feet outside the building wall. 

Building Sewer. The building (house) sewer is that part of 
the horizontal piping of a drainage system which extends from 
the end of the building drain and which receives the discharge 
of the building drain and conveys it to a public sewer, private 
sewer, individual sewage-disposal system, or other point of 
disposal. 

Building Storm Drain. A building (house) storm drain is a 
building drain used for conveying rain water, surface water, 
ground water, subsurface water, condensate, cooling water, or 
other similar discharge to a building storm sewer or a combined 
building sewer, extending to a point not less than 3 feet outside 
the building wall. 

Building Storm Sewer. A building (house) storm sewer is the 
extension from the building storm drain to the public storm 
sewer, combined sewer, or other point of disposal. 

Building Subdrain. A building (house) subdrain is that 
portion of a drainage system which cannot drain by gravity into 
the building sewer. 

Building Trap, A building (house) trap is a device, fitting, 
of assembly of fittings installed in the building drain to pre- 
vent circulation of air between the drainage system of the 
building and the building sewer. 

Circuit Vent. A circuit vent is a branch vent that serves | 
two or more traps and extends from in front of the- last fixture I 
connection of a horizontal branch to the vent stack. "^ 

Code, The word "Code" when used alone shall mean these 

15 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



regulations, subsequent amendments thereto, or any emergency 
rule or regulation which the Administrative Authority having 
jurisdiction may lawfully adopt. 

Combination Fixture. A combination fixture is a fixture 
combining one sink and tray or a two- or three-compartment 

sink or tray in one unit. 

Combined Building Sewer. A combined building sewer re- 
ceives storm water and sewage. 

Combination Waste and Vent System. A combination waste 
and vent system is a specially designed system of waste 
piping embodying the horizontal wet venting of one or more 
sinks or floor drains by means of a common waste and vent 
pipe adequately sized to provide free movement of air above 
the flow line of the drain. 

Common Vent. A common vent is a vent connecting at the 
junction of two fixture drains and serving as a vent for both 
fixtures. 

Conductor. See Leader. 

Continuous Vent. A continuous vent is a vertical vent that 
is a continuation of the drain to which it connects. 

Continuous Waste. A continuous waste is a drain from two 
or three fixtures connected to a single trap. 

Cross -Connection. A cross-connection is any physical con- 
nection or arrangement between two otherwise separate piping 
systems, one of which contains potable water and the other 
water of unknown or questionable safety, whereby water may 
flow from one system to the other, the direction of flow de- 
pending on the pressure differential between the two systems. 
(See Backflow and Back-Siphonage). *-J 

Dead End. A dead end is a branch leading from a soil, 
waste, or vent pipe, building drain, or building sewer, which 
is tetminated at a developed distance of 2 feet or more by 
means of a plug or other closed fitting. 

Developed Length. The developed length of a pipe is its 
length along the center line of the pipe and fittings. 

Diameter. Unless specifically stated, the term "diameter'" 
is the nominal diameter as designated commercially. 

16 



DEFINITIONS 



Double Offset. A double offset is two changes of direction 
installed in succession or series in continuous pipe. 

Downspout. See Leader. 

Drain. A drain is any pipe which carries waste water or 
water-borne wastes in a building drainage system. 

Drainage Piping. See Drainage System. 

Drainage System. A drainage system (drainage piping) in- 
cludes all the piping within public or private premises, which 
conveys sewage, rain water, or other liquid wastes to a legal 
point of disposal, but does not include the mains of a public 
sewer system or private or public sewage-treatment or disposal 
plant. 

Dual Vent. See Common Vent. 

Durham System. Durham system is a term used to describe 
soil or waste systems where all piping is of threaded pipe, 
tubing, or other such rigid construction, using recessed drain- 
age fittings to correspond to the types of piping. 

Effective Opening. The effective opening is the minimum 
cross-sectional area at the point of water-supply discharge, 
measured or expressed in terms of (1) diameter of a circle, 
(2) if the opening is not circular, the diameter of a circle of 
equivalent cross-sectional area. (This is applicable to air 
gap.) 

Existing Work Existing work is a plumbing system or any 
part thereof which has been installed prior to the effective date 
of this Code. 

Fixture Branch. A fixture branch is a pipe connecting 
several fixtures. 

Fixture Drain, A fixture drain is the drain from the trap of a 
fixture to the junction of that drain with any other drain pipe. 

Fixture Supply. A fixture supply is a water-supply pipe 
connecting the fixture with the fixture branch. 

Fixture Unit. A fixture unit is a quantity in terms of which 
the load-producing effects on the plumbing system of different 
kinds of plumbing fixtures are expressed on some arbitrarily 
chosen scale. 



17 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



Fixture-Unit Flow Rate. Fixture-unit flow rate is the total 
discharge flow in gpm of a single fixture divided by 7.5 which 
provides the flow rate of that particular plumbing fixture as a 
unit of flow. Fixtures are rated as multiples of this unit of 
flow. 

Flood Level. See Flooded. 

Flood-Level Rim. The flood-level rim is the top edge of the 
receptacle from which water overflows. 

Flooded. A fixture is flooded when the liquid therein rises 
to the flood-level rim. 

Flush Valves. A flush valve is a device located at the 
bottom of the tank for the purpose of flushing water closets 
and similar fixtures. 

Flushometer Valve. A flushometer valve is a device which 
discharges a predetermined quantity of water to fixtures for 
flushing purposes and is actuated by direct water pressure. 

Frostproof Closet. A frostproof closet is a hopper that has 
no water in the bowl and has the trap and the control valve for 
its water supply installed below the frost line. 

Grade, Grade is the slope or fall of a line of pipe in reference 
to a horizontal plane. In drainage it is usually expressed as 
the fall in a fraction of an inch per foot length of pipe. 

Grease Interceptor. See Interceptor. 

Grease Trap. See Interceptor. 

Hangers. See Supports. 

Horizontal Branch. A horizontal branch is a drain pipe ex- 
tending laterally from a soil or waste stack or building drain, 
with or without vertical sections or branches, which receives 
the discharge from one or more fixture drains and conducts it 
to the soil or waste stack or to the building (house) drain. 

Horizontal Pipe. Horizontal pipe means any pipe or fitting 
which makes an angle of more than 45 deg. with the vertical. 

House Drain, See Building Drain. 

18 



DEFINITIONS 

House Sewer. See Building Sewer. 

House Trap, See Building Trap. 

Indirect Waste Pipe. An indirect waste pipe is a pipe that 
does not connect directly with the drainage system but conveys 
liquid wastes by discharging into a plumbing fixture or re- 
ceptacle which is directly connected to the drainage system. 

Individual Vent. An individual vent is a pipe installed to 
vent a fixture trap and which connects with the vent system 
above the fixture served or terminates in the open air. 

Industrial Wastes. Industrial wastes are liquid wastes re- 
sulting from the processes employed in industrial establish- 
ments and are free of fecal matter. 

Insanitary. Contrary to sanitary principles — injurious to 
health. 

Interceptor. An interceptor is a device designed and in- 
stalled so as to separate and retain deleterious, hazardous, or 
undesirable matter from normal wastes and permit normal sew- 
age or liquid wastes to discharge into the disposal terminal 
by gravity. 

Leaching Well or Pit. See Individual Sewage-Disposal Sys- 
tem in Appendix. 

Leader. A leader (downspout) is the water conductor from 
the roof to the building storm drain, combined building sewer, 
or other means of disposal. 

Liquid Waste. Liquid waste is the discharge from any fix- 
ture, appliance, or appurtenance, in connection with a plumb- 
ing system which does not receive fecal matter. 

Load Factor. Load factor is the percentage of the total 
connected fixture unit flow rate which is likely to occur at any 
point in the drainage system. It varies with the type of oc- 
cupancy, the total flow unit above this point being considered, 
and with the probability factor of simultaneous use. 

Local Ventilating Pipe. A local ventilating pipe is a pipe 
on the fixture side of the trap through which vapor or foul air 
is removed from a room or fixture. 



19 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



Loop Vent. A loop vent is the same as a circuit vent except 
that it loops back and connects with a stack vent instead of a 
vent stack. 

Main. The main of any system of continuous piping is the 
principal artery of the system, to which branches may be con- 
nected. 

Main Sewer. See Public Sewer. 

Main Vent. The main vent is the principal artery of the 
venting system, to which vent branches may be connected. 

May. The word "may" is a permissive term. 

Nuisance. The word "nuisance" embraces public nuisance 
as known at common law or in equity jurisprudence; and what- 
ever is dangerous to human life or detrimental to health; what- 
ever building, structure, or premises is not sufficiently ven- 
tilated, sewered, drained, cleaned, or lighted, in reference to 
its intended or actual use; and whatever renders the air or 
human food or drink or water supply unwholesome, are also 
severally, in contemplation of this Code, nuisances. 

Offset. An offset in a line of piping is a combination of 
elbows or bends which brings one section of the pipe out of 
line but into a line parallel with the other section. - 

Person, Person is a natural person, his heirs, executors, 
administrators or assigns; and includes a firm, partnership or 
corporation, its or their successors or assigns. Singular in- 
cludes plural; male includes female. 

Pitch. See Grade. 

Plumbing. Plumbing is the practice, materials, and fixtures 
used in the installation, maintenance, extension, and alteration 
of all piping, fixtures, appliances, and appurtenances in con- 
nection with any of the following: Sanitary drainage or storm 
drainage facilities, the venting system and the public or private 
water-supply systems, within or adjacent to any building, 
structure, or conveyance; also the practice and materials used 
in the installation, maintenance, extension, or alteration of 
storm-water, liquid-waste, or sewerage, and water-supply sys- 
tems of any premises to their connection with any point of 
public disposal or other acceptable terminal. 

20 



DEFINITIONS 



Plumbing Fixtures. Plumbing fixtures are Installed re- 
ceptacles, devices, or appliances which are supplied with 
water or which receive or discharge liquids or liquid-borne 
wastes, with or without discharge into the drainage system with 
which they may be direcdy or indirectly connected. 

Plumbing Inspector. See Administrative Authority. 

Plumbing System. The plumbing system includes the water- 
supply and distribution pipes; plumbing fixtures and traps; 
soil, waste, and vent pipes; building drains and building sewers 
including their respective connections, devices, and appurte- 
nances within the property lines of the premises, and water- 
treating or water-using equipment. 

Pool, A pool is a water receptacle used for swimming or as 
a plvmge or other bath, designed to accommodate more than one 
bather at a time. 

Potable Water. Potable water is water which is satisfactory 
for drinking, culinary, and domestic purposes, and meets the 
requirements of the Health Authority having jurisdiction. 

Private or Private Use. In the classification of plumbing 
fixtures, private applies to fixtures in residences and apart- 
ments and to fixtures in private bathrooms of hotels and similar 
installations where the fixtures are intended for the use of a 
family or an individual. 

Private Sewer. A private sewer is a sewer privately owned 
and not directly controlled by public authority. 

Public or Public Use. In the classification of plumbing 
fixtures, public applies to fixtures in general toilet rooms of 
schools, gymnasiums, hotels, railroad stations, public build- 
ings, bars, public comfort stations, and other installations 
(whether pay or free) where a number of fixtures are installed 
so that their use is similarly unrestricted. 

Public Official, See Administrative Authority, 

Public Sewer. A public sewer is a common sewer directly 
controlled by public authority. 

Relief Vent, A relief vent is a vent the primary function of 
which is to provide circulation of air between drainage and 
vent systems. 



21 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



Return Offset. A return offset is a double offset installed 
so as to return the pipe to its original alignment. 

Revent Pipe. A revent pipe (sometimes called an individual 
vent) is that part of a vent pipe line which connects directly 
with an individual waste or group of wastes, underneath or back 
of the fixture, and extends either to the main or branch vent 
pipe. 

Rim. A rim is an unobstructed open edge of a fixture. 

Riser. A riser is a water-supply pipe which extends vertical- 
ly one full story or more to convey water to branches or fixtures. 

Roof Drain. A roof drain is a drain installed to receive 
water collecting on the surface of a roof and to discharge it 
into the leader (downspout). 

Roughing-ln. Roughing-in is the installation of all parts of 
the plumbing system which can be completed prior to the in- 
stallation of fixtures. This includes drainage, water-supply, 
and vent piping, and the necessary fixture supports. 

Sand Interceptor. See Interceptor. 

Sanitary Sewer, A sanitary sewer is a pipe which carries 
sewage and excludes storm, surface, and ground water. 

Second Hand. Second hand as applied to material or plumb- 
£ ing equipment is that which has been installed, and has been 

< used, removed, and passed to another ownership or possession. 

c 



Separator. See Interceptor. 

Septic Tank, A septic tank is a watertight receptacle which 
receives the discharge of a drainage system or part thereof, 
and is designed and constructed so as to separate solids from 
the liquid, digest organic matter through a period of detention, 
J and allow the liquids to discharge into the soil outside of the 

tank through a system of open-joint or perforated piping, or 
disposal pit. 



Sewage. Sewage is any liquid waste containing animal or 
vegetable matter in suspension or solution, and may include 
liquids containing chemicals in solution. 

Shall. The word "shall" is a mandatory term. 

22 



DEFINITIONS 

Side Vent. A side vent is a vent connecting to the drain 
pipe through a fitting at an angle not greater than 45 deg to 
the vertical. 

Size of Pipe and Tubing. See Diameter. 

Slope. See Grade. 

Soil Pipe, A soil pipe is any pipe which conveys the dis- 
charge of water closets or fixtures having similar functions, 
with or without the discharge from other fixtures, to the build- 
ing drain or building sewer. 

Soil Vent. See Stack Vent. 

Special Waste Pipe. See Chapter 9. 

Stack. A stack is the vertical main of a system of soil, 
waste, or vent piping. 

Stack Group. Stack group is a term applied to the location 
of fixtures in relation to the stack so that by means of proper" 
fittings, vents may be reduced to a minimum. 

Stack Vent. A stack vent (sometimes called a waste vent or 
soil vent) is the extension of a soil or waste stack above the 
highest horizontal drain connected to the stack. 

Stack Venting. Stack venting is a method of venting a fix- 
ture or fixtures through the soil or waste stack. 

Storm Drain, See Building Storm Drain. 

Storm Sewer. A storm sewer is a sewer used for conveying 
rain water, surface water, condensate, cooling water, or similar 
liquid wastes. 

Subsoil Drain. A subsoil drain is a drain which receives only 
subsurface or seepage water and conveys it to a place of dis- 
posal. 

Sump. A sump is a tank or pit which receives sewage or 
liquid waste, located below the normal grade of the gravity 
system and which must be emptied by mechanical means. 

Supports. Supports, hangers, and anchors are devices for 
supporting and securing pipe and fixtures to walls, ceilings, 
floors, or structural members. 

23 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



Trap. A trap is a fitting or device so designed and con- 
structed as to provide, when properly vented, a liquid seal 
which will prevent the back passage of air without materially 
affecting the flow of sewage or waste water through it. 

Trap Seal, The trap seal is the maximum vertical depth of 
liquid that a trap will retain, measured between the crown 
weir and the top of the dip of the trap. 

Vacuum Breaker. See Backflow Preventer. 

Vent Pipe. See Vent System. 

Vent Stack, A vent stack is a vertical vent pipe installed 
primarily for the purpose of providing circulation of air to and 
from any part of the drainage system. 

Vent System. A vent system is a pipe or pipes installed to 
provide a flow of air to or from a drainage system or to provide 
a circulation of air within such system to protect trap seals 
from siphonage and back pressure. 

Vertical Pipe. A vertical pipe is any pipe or fitting which 
is installed in a vertical position or which makes an angle of 
not more than 45 deg. with the vertical. 

Waste. See Liquid Waste and Industrial Wastes. 

Waste Pipe. A waste pipe is a pipe which conveys only 
liquid waste, free of fecal matter. 

Water- Distributing Pipe. A water-distributing pipe in a build- 
ing or premises is a pipe which conveys water from the water- 
service pipe to the plumbing fixtures and other water outlets. 

Water Main. The water (street) main is a water-supply pipe 
for public or community use. 

Water Outlet. A water outlet, as used in connection with the 
water-distributing system, is the discharge opening for the 
water (1) to a fixture; (2) to atmospheric pressure (except into 
an open tank which is part of the water-supply system); (3) to a 
boiler or heating system; (4) to any water-operated device or 
equipment requiring water to operate, but not a part of the 
plumbing system. 

24 



GENERAL REGULATIONS 



Water Riser Pipe. See Riser. 

Water-Service Pipe. The water-service pipe is the pipe from 
the water main or other source of water supply to the building 
served. 

Water-Supply System, The water-supply system of a building 
or premises consists of the water-service pipe, the water- 
distributing pipes, and the necessary connecting pipes, fittings, 
control valves, and all appurtenances in or adjacent to the 
building or premises. 

Wet Vent. A wet vent is a vent which receives the discharge 1 
from wastes other than water closets. J 

Yoke Vent. A yoke vent is a pipe connecting upward from a 
soil or waste stack to a vent stack for the purpose of prevent- 
ing pressure changes in the stacks. 



25 



Chapter 2 
GENERAL REGULATIONS 



2.1 CONFORMANCE WITH CODE 

2.1.1 All plumbing systems hereafter installed shall con- 

form at least with the provisions of this Code. (For admini- 
stration, see Appendix E) 

2.2 GRADE OF HORIZONTAL DRAINAGE PIPING 

2.2.1 Horizontal drainage piping shall be run in practical 

alignment at a uniform grade. (See Chapter -11 for specific 
slopes.) 

2.3 CHANGE IN DIRECTION 

2.3.1 Fittings. Changes in direction in drainage piping 
shall be made by the appropriate use of 45-degree wyes, long- 
or-short-sweep quarter bends, sixth, eighth, or sixteenth bends, 
or by a combination of these or equivalent fittings. Single and 
double sanitary tees and quarter bends may be used in drain- 
age lines only where the direction of flow is from the hori- 
zontal to the vertical. 

2.3.2 Short Sweeps. Short sweeps not less than 3 inches 
in diameter may be used in soil and waste lines where the 
change in direction of flow is from either the horizontal to the 
vertical or from the vertical to the horizontal, and may be used 
for making necessary offsets between the ceiling and the next 
floor above. 

2.4 FITTINGS AND CONNECTIONS 

2.4.1 Fittings Prohibited. No fitting having a hub in the 
direction opposite to flow, or tee branch shall be used as a 
drainage fitting. No running threads, bands, or saddles shall 
be used in the drainage system. No drainage or vent piping 
shall be drilled or tapped. 

2.4.2 Heel or Side-Inlet Bend. A heel or side-inlet 
quarter bend shall not be used as a vent when the inlet is 
placed in a horizontal position. 

26 



GENERAL REGULATIONS 



2.4.3 Obstruction to Flow. No fitting, connection, de- 

vice, or method of installation which obstructs or retards the 
flow of water, wastes, sewage, or air in the drainage or vent- 
ing systems in an amount greater than the normal frictional 
resistance to flow, shall be used unless it is indicated as 
acceptable in this Code or is approved by the Administrative 
Authority as having a desirable and acceptable function and 
as of ultimate benefit to the proper and continuing functioning 
of the plumbing system. The enlargement of a 3-inch closet 
bend or stub to 4 inches shall not be considered an obstruction. 
None of the methods described in Pars. 2.28.1, 2 28.2, and 
2.28.3, shall be considered as restriction to flow. 

2.5 REPAIR AND ALTERATIONS 

2.5.1 Existing Buildings. In existing buildings or prem- 
ises in which plumbing installations are to be altered, repaired, 
or renovated, necessary deviations from the provision of this 
Code may be permitted, provided such deviations conform to the 
intent of the Code and are approved in writing by the Admini- 
strative Authority. 

2.5.2 Health or Safety. Wherever compliance with all the 
provisions of this Code fails to eliirtinate or alleviate a nui- 
sance which may involve health or safety hazards, the owner 
or his agent shall install such additional plumbing or drainage 
equipment as may be necessary to abate such nuisance- 



2.6 SEWER AND WATER PIPES 

2.6.1 Water service pipes, or any underground wa'ter 

pipes, shall not be run or laid in the same trench as the build- 
ing sewer or drainage piping, except as provided for in Chapters 
10 and 11. 

2.7 TRENCHING, EXCAVATION, AND BACKFILL 

2.7.1 Support of Piping. Buried piping shall be supported / 
throughout its entire length. -' 

2.7.2 Tunneling and Driving. Tunneling may be done in 
yards, courts, or driveways of any building site. When pipes 
are driven, the drive pipe shall be at least one size larger than 
the pipe to be laid. 



27 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



2.7.3 Open Trenches. All excavations required to be 
made for the installation of a building-drainage system, or any 
part thereof within the walls of a building, shall be open trench 
work and shall be kept open until the piping has been inspected, 
tested, and accepted. 

2.7.4 Mechanical Excavation. Mechanical means of 
excavation may be used. 

2.7.5 Backfilling. Adequate precaution shall be taken to 
insure proper compactness of backfull around piping without 
damage to such piping. 

2.7.6 Backfill Material. Trenches shall be backfilled in \ 
thin layers to 12 in. above the top of the piping with clean 
earth which shall not contain stones, boulders, cinder-fill, or 
other materials which would damage or break the piping or 
cause corrosive action. Mechanical devices such as bulldozers, 
graders, etc., may then be used to complete backfill to grade 
Fill shall be properly compacted. 

2.8 STRUCTURAL SAFETY 

2.8.1 In the process of installing or repairing any part of 

a plumbing and drainage installation, the finished floors, walls, 
ceilings, tile work, or any other part of the building or prem- 
ises which must be changed or replaced shall be left in a safe 
structural condition in accordance with the Requirements of 
the Building Code or as approved by the Administrative Au- 
thority. 

2.9 WORKMANSHIP 

2.9.1 Workmanship shall conform to generally accepted 

good practice. 

2.10 PROTECTION OF PIPES 

2.10.1 Breakage and Corrosion. Pipes passing under or 
through walls shall be protected from breakage. Pipes passing 
through or under cinder or concrete or other corrosive material 
shall be protected against external corrosion by protective 
coating, wrapping, or other means which will prevent such 
corrosion. 

28 



GENERAL REGULATIONS 



2.10.2 Cutting or Notching. No structural member shall 
be weakened or impaired by cutting, notching, or otherwise, 
except to the extent permitted by the proper Administrative 
Authority. 

2.10.3 Pipes Through Footings or Foundation Walls. A 
soil or waste pipe, or building drain passing under a footing or 
through a foundation wall shall be provided with a relieving 
arch; or there shall be built into the masonry wall an iron pipe 
sleeve two pipe sizes greater than the pipe passing through or 
as may be approved in writing by the Administrative Authority. 

2.10.4 Freezing. No water, soil, or waste pipe shall be 
installed or permitted outside of a building or in an exterior 
wall unless adequate provision is made to protect such pipe 
from freezing where necessary. 

2.11 DAMAGE TO DRAINAGE SYSTEM OR PUBLIC SEWER 

2.11.1 It shall be unlawful for any person to deposit by any 
means into the building drainage system or into a public or 
private sewer any ashes; cinders; rags; inflammable, poisonous, 
or explosive liquids; gases; oils; grease; or any other material 
which would or could obstruct, damage, or overload such sys- 
tem or sewer. 

2.12 INDUSTRIAL WASTES 

2.12.1 Wastes detrimental to the public sewer system or 
detrimental to the functioning of the sewage-treatment plant 
shall be treated and disposed of as directed by the Admini- 
strative Authority or other authority having jurisdiction. 

2.13 SLEEVES 

2.13.1 Annular space between sleeves and pipes shall be 
filled or tightly calked with coal tar or asphaltum compound, 
lead, or other material found equally effective and approved as 
such by the Administrative Authority. 

2.14 RATPROOFING 

2.14.1 Exterior Openings. All exterior openings provided 
for the passage of piping shall be properly sealed with snugly 
fitting collars of metal or other approved ratproof material 
securely fastened into place. 

29 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



2.14.2 Interior Openings . Interior openings through walls, 
floors, and ceilings shall be ratproofed as found necessary by 
the Administrative Authority. 

2.15 USED OR SECOND-HAND EQUIPMENT 

2.15.1 It shall be unlawful to purchase, sell, or install 
used equipment or material for plumbing installation unless it 
complies with the minimum standards set forth in this Code. 

2.16 CONDEMNED EQUIPMENT 

2.16.1 Any plumbing equipment condemned by the Ad- 
ministrative Authority because of wear, damage, defects, or 
sanitary hazards, shall not be re-used for plumbing purposes. 

2.17 DEPTK OF BUILDING SEWER AND WATER 
SERVICE (OUTSIDE OF BUILDING) 

2.17.1 Sewers and water-service piping shall be installed 

below the recorded frost penetration, but in no case less than 

feet inches for sewer and feet inches for 

water piping below grade. (Blank spaces should be filled in 

locally in accordance with actual experience.) 

2.18 PIPING IN RELATION TO FOOTINGS 

2.18.1 Parallel. No piping shall be laid parallel to foot- 
ings or outside bearing walls closer than 3 feet, except as may 
be approved by the Administrative Authority. 

2.18.2 Depth. Piping installed deeper than footings or 
bearing walls shall be 45 deg therefrom except as may be ap- 
proved by the Administrative Authority. 

2.19 DRAINAGE BELOW SEWER LEVEL . 

2.19.1 Drainage piping located below the level of the 
sewer shall be installed as provided for in Chapters 10 and 11. 

2.20 CONNECTIONS TO PLUMBING SYSTEM REQUIRED 

2.20.1 All plumbing fixtures, drains, appurtenances, and 
appliances used to receive or discharge liquid wastes or 
sewage shall be connected properly to the drainage system of 
the building or premises, in accordance with the requirements 
of this Code. 

30 



GENERAL REGULATIONS 



2.21 SEWER REQUIRED 

2.21.1 Every building in which plumbing fixtures are in- 
stalled shall have a connection to a public or private sewer 
except as provided in paragraph 2.22.1. 

2.22 INDIVIDUAL OR PRIVATE SEWAGE -DISPOSAL 
SYSTEM 

2.212.1 When a public sewer is not available for use, 
sewage and drainage piping shall be connected to an individual 
sewage-disposal system found to be adequate and approved by 
the Administrative Authority. (See Appendix B for recommended 
standards on Individual Sewage-Disposal Systems.) 

2.23 LOCATION OF FIXTURES 

2.23.1 Light and Ventilation. Plumbing fixtures, except 
drinking fountains and single lavatories, shall be located in 
compartments or rooms provided with ventilation and illum- 
ination conforming to standards of good practice. (See ASA 
A 53.1-1946.) 

2.23.2 Improi>er Location. Piping, fixtures, or equipment 
shall not be located in such a manner as to interfere with the 
normal operation of windows, doors, or other exit openings. 

2.24 PIPING MEASUREMENTS 

2.24.1 Except where otherwise specified in this Code all 
measurements between pipes or between pipes and walls, etc., 
shall be made to the center lines of the pipes. 

2.25 VENTING 

2.23.1 The drainage system shall be provided with a 
system of vent piping which will permit the admission or emis- 
sion of air so that under no circumstance of normal or in- 
tended use shall the seal of any fixture trap be subjected to a 
pressure differential of more than 1 inch of water. 

2.26 VENTILATION DUCTS 

2.26.1 Ventilation ducts from washrooms and toilet rooms 
shall exhaust to the outer air or form an independent system. 

31 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



2.27 WATER CLOSET CONNECTIONS 

2.27.1 Lead. Three-inch lead bends and stubs may be 
used on water closets or similar connections, provided the in- 
let is dressed or swedged to receive a 4-inch floor flange. 

2.27.2 Iron. Three-inch bends may be used on water 
closets or similar connections, provided a 4-inch x 3-inch 
flange is used to receive the fixture horn. 

2.27.3 Reducing. Four-by-three-inch reducing bends are 
acceptable. 

2.28 DEAD ENDS 

2.28.1 In the installation or removal of any part of a drain- 
age system, dead ends shall be avoided except where neces- 
sary to extend a cleanout so as to be accessible. 

2.29 TOILET FACILITIES FOR WORKMEN 

2.29.1 Suitable toilet facilities in accordance with Table 
7.21.2 shall be provided and maintained in a sanitary condition 
for the use of workmen during construction. 



32 



Chapter 3 
MATERIALS - QUALITY AND WEIGHT 



3.1 MATERIALS 

3.1.1 Minimum Standards. The materials listed in this 
chapter shall conform at least to the standards cited when used 
in the construction, installation, alteration, or repair of any 

part of a plumbing and drainage system, except that the Ad- 
ministrative Authority shall allow the extension, addition, or 
relocation of existing soil, waste, or vent pipes with materials 
of like ^rade or quality, as permitted in paragraph 2.5.1. 

3.1.2 Use of Materials. Each material listed in Table 3.5 
shall conform to at least one of the standards cited opposite 
it. Its use shall be further governed by the requirement imposed 
in other chapters of the Code. Materials not included in the 
table shall be used only as provided for in paragraph 3.1.1. 
Materials shall be free of manufacturing defects or damage, 
however occasioned, which would, or would tend to, render such 
materials defective, unsanitary, or otherwise improper to accom- 
plish the purpose of this code. 

3.1.3 Specifications for Materials. Standard specifica- 
tions for materials for plumbing installations are listed in 
Table 3.5. Products conforming at least to any of the specifi- 
cations listed for a given material shall be considered ac- 
ceptable. 

NOTE 1. Abbreviations used in Table 3-5 refer to stand- 
ards or specifications as identified below. 

ASA American Standards approved by the American 
Standards Association, 70 East 45th Street, 
New York 17, N. Y. 

ASTM Standards and Tentative Standards published by 
the American Society for Testing Materials, 
1916 Race Street, Philadelphia 3, Pa. 

FS Federal Specifications published by the Federal 

Specifications Board and obtained from the 



33 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



Superintendent of Documents, Government Print- 
ing Office, Washington 25, D.C. 

AWWA Standards and Tentative Standards published by 
the American Waterworks Association, 500 Fifth 
Avenue, New York 18, N. Y. 

CS Commercial Standards representing recorded volun- 

tary recommendations of the trade, issued by 
the United States Department of Commerce and 
obtainable from the Superintendent of Docu- 
ments, Government Printing Office, Washington 
25, D.C. 

MSS Standards published by the Manufacturers Stand- 
ardization Society of the Valve and Fittings In- 
dustry, 420 Lexington Avenue, New York 17,N.Y. 

SPR Simplified Practice Recommendations representing 
recorded recommendations of the trade and is- 
sued by the U.S. Department of Commerce, 
Washington 25, D.C. 

NOTE 2. ASTM Standards are issued under fixed designa- 
tions; the final number indicates the year of original adoption, 
or in the case of revision, the year of last revision. "T" in- 
dicates Tentative. In the "CS" series of standards, also, the 
final number indicates the year of issue. For Federal Specifi- 
cations, the year indicated in Table 3.5 is that of the date of 
issue or that of the latest revision or amendment. 



NOTE 3- All standards and specifications for materials are 
subject to change. Designations carrying indication of the year 
of issue may thus become obsolete. Table 3-5 gives the full 
designations of standards current at the time this Code is 
printed. As provided in paragraph 3.4.1, the Administrative 
Authority is required to review this table and have it brought 
up to date at intervals not exceeding two years. 



3.1.4 Identification of Materials. Each length of 

pipe, and each pipe fitting, trap, fixture, and device used in a 
plumbing system shall have cast, stamped, or indelibly marked 
on it the maker's mark or name, the weight, type, and classes 
of the product, when such marking is required by the approved 
standard that applies. 

34 



MATERIALS - QUALITY AND WEIGHT 

3.2 SPECIAL MATERIALS 

3.2.1 Lead. See Table 3.5. Sheet lead shall be not less 
than the following: 

For safe pans — not less than 4 psf 

For flashings of vent terminals — not less than 3 psf 

Lead bends and lead traps shall not be less than 1/8 
inch wall thickness. 

3.2.2 Copper. Sheet copper shall be not less than the 
following: 

Safe pans — 12 oz per sq ft 

Vent terminal flashings — 8 oz per sq ft 

3.2.3 Calking Ferrules shall be manufactured from red 
brass and shall be in accordance with the following table: 

Pipe Sizes Inside Diameter Length Minimum Weight 
Inches Inches Inches Each 

2 2 1/4 4 1/2 1 lb oz 

3 3 1/4 4 1/2 1 lb 12 oz 

4 4 1/4 4 1/2 2 lb 8 oz 

3.2.4 Soldering Bushings shall be of red brass in ac- 
cordance with the following table: 



Pipe Sizes 


Minimum 


Weight 


Inches 


Each 


1 1/4 




6 oz 


1 1/2 




8 oz 


2 




14 oz 


2 1/2 


1 lb 


6 oz 


3 


2 lb 


oz 


4 


3 lb 


8 oz 



3.2.5 Floor Flanges. Floor flanges for water closets or 

similar fixtures shall be not less than 1/8 inch thick for brass 
— 1/4-inch thick and not less than 2-inch calking depth for 
cast iron or galvanized malleable iron. If of hard lead, they 
shall weigh not less than 1 lb 9 oz and be composed of lead 
alloy with not less than 7.75 per cent antimony by weight. 

Flanges shall be soldered to lead bends, or shall be calked, 
soldered or screwed to other metal. 

Closet screws and bolts shall be brass. 

35 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



3.2.6 Cleanouts. 

(a) Cleanout plugs shall be of brass and shall conform to 
Federal Specification WW-P-401. 

(b) Plugs may have raised square or counter sunk heads. 

(c) Countersunk heads should be used where raised heads 
may cause a hazard. 

3.3 ALTERNATE MATERIALS AND METHODS 

3.3.1 Existing Premises. In existing buildings or 
premises in which plumbing installations are to be altered, 
repaired, or renovated, the Administrative Authority has dis- 
cretionary powers to permit deviation from the provisions of 
this Code, provided that such a proposal to deviate is first 
submitted for proper determination in order that health and 
safety requirements, as they pertain to plumbing, shall be 
observed. 

3.3.2 Approval. Provisions of this Code are not intended 
to prevent the use of any material, device, method of assem- 
blage or installation, fixture, or appurtenance not specifically 
authorized, provided such alternate has been approved by the 
Administrative Authority, in accordance with this section. 

3.3.3 Evidence of Compliance. The Administrative 
Authority shall require sufficient evidence to enable him to 
judge whether proposed alternates meet the requirements of 
this Code for safety and health. 

3.3.4 Tests. When there is insufficient evidence to sub- 
stantiate claims for alternates, the Administrative Authority 
may require tests of compliance as proof to be made by an 
approved agency at the expense of the applicant. 

3.3.5 Test Procedure. Tests shall be made in accord- 
ance with generally recognized standards; but in the absence 
of such standards, the Administrative Authority shall specify 
the test procedure. 



3.3.6 Repeated Tests. The Administrative Authority 

may require tests to be repeated if, at any time, there is 
reason to believe that an alternate no longer conforms to the 
requirements on which its approval was based. 

36 



MATERIALS - QUALITY AND WEIGHT 



3.4 APPROVED MATERIALS 

3.4.1 Periodic Review. The Administrative Authority 
shall periodically, at least once every two years, review the 
approved list of specifications and standards for materials in 
Table 3.5 and in Chapter 7 "Plumbing Fixtures" to check the 
designations, numbers, etc., which are used for identification, 
and if there are later issues shall submit them for their legal 
adoption. 

NOTE: All standards and specifications for materials are 
subject to change. Designations carrying indication of the 
year of issue may thus become obsolete. Table 3.5 gives the 
full designations of standards current at the time this Code is 
printed. 

3.4.2 Specific Usage. Each chapter of this Code in- 
dicates specifically the type of material permitted for the 
various parts of the plumbing system. The specifications for 
each of those materials are given in Table 3.5. 



37 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 





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MATERIALS - QUALITY AND WEIGHT 



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39 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



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40 



Chapter 4 
JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS 



4.1 TIGHTNESS 

4.1.1 Joints and connections in the plumbing system 

shall be gastight and watertight for the pressure required by 
test, with the exceptions of those portions of perforated or 
open-joint piping which are installed for the purpose of col- 
lecting and conveying ground or seepage water to the under- 
ground storm drains. 

4.2 TYPES OF JOINTS 

4.2.1 Calked Joints. Calked joints for cast-iron bell- 
and-spigot soil pipe shall be firmly packed with oakum or 
hemp and filled with molten lead not less than 1 inch deep and 
not to extend more than 1/8 inch below rim of hub. No paint, 
varnish, or other coatings shall be permitted on the jointing 
material until after the joint has been tested and approved. 

4.2.2 Threaded Joints — Screwed Joints. Threaded 
joints shall conform to American National Taper Pipe thread, 
ASA B2. 1-1945 or FS GGG-P-351a. All burrs shall be re- 
moved. Pipe ends shall be reamed or filled out to size of 
bore, and all chips shall be removed. Pipe-joint cement and 
paint shall be used only on male threads. 

4.2.3 Wiped Joints. Joints in lead pipe or fittings, or 
between lead pipe or fittings and brass or copper pipe, fer- 
rules, solder nipples, or traps, shall be full-wiped joints. 
Wiped joints shall have an exposed surface on each side of a 
joint not less than 3/4 inch and at least as thick as the ma- 
terial being jointed. Wall or floor flange lead-wiped joints 
shall be made by using a lead ring or flange placed behind the 
joints at wall or floor. Joints between lead pipe and cast iron, 
steel, or wrought iron shall be made by means of a calking 
ferrule, soldering nipple, or bushing. 

4.2.4 Soldered, or Sweat Joints. Soldered or sweat 
joints for tubing shall be made with approved fittings. Sur- 
faces to be soldered or sweated shall be cleaned bright. The 

41 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



joints shall be properly fluxed and made with approved solder. 
Joints in copper water tubing shall be made by the appropriate 
use of approved brass or wrought copper water fittings, proper- 
ly sweated or soldered together. 

4.2.5 Flared Joints. Flared joints for soft-copper water 
tubing shall be made with fittings meeting approved standards. 
The tubing shall be expanded with a proper flaring tool. 

4.2.6 Hot-Poured Joints. Hot-poured compound for clay 
or concrete sewer pipe shall not be water absorbent and when 
poured against a dry surface shall have a bond of not less than 
100 psi. All surfaces of the joint shall be cleaned and dried 
before pouring. If wet surfaces are unavoidable, a suitable 
primer shall be applied. Compound shall not soften sufficient- 
ly to destroy the effectiveness of the joint when subjected to a 
temperature of 160 deg F nor be soluble in any of the waste 
carried by the drainage system. Approximately 25 per cent of 
the joint space at the base of the socket shall be filled with 
jute or hemp. A pouring collar, rope or other device shall be 
used to hold the hot compound during pouring. Each joint 
shall be poured in one operation until the joint is filled. Joints 
shall not be tested until one hour after pouring. 

4.2.7 Precast Joints. Precast collars shall be formed 
in both the spigot and bell of the pipe, in advance of use. 
Collar surfaces shall be conical with side slopes of 3 deg 
with the axis of the pipe and the length shall be equal to the 
depth of the socket. Prior to making joint contact, surfaces 
shall be cleaned and coated with solvents and adhesives as 
recommended in the standard. When the spigot end is in- 
serted in the collar, it 'shall bind before contacting the base 
of the socket. Material shall be inert and resistant to both 
acids and alkalies. 

4.2.8 Brazed Joints. Brazed joints shall be made in 
accordance with the provisions of Section 6 of the Code for 
Pressure Piping, ASA B31. 1-1951. 

4.2.9 Cement Mortar Joints. Cement joints shall be used 
only when specifically permitted in other chapters of this Code 
or when approved by the Administrative Authority, as suffi- 
cient to accomplish the purpose of this Code, A layer of jute 
or hemp shall be inserted into the base of the joint space and 
rammed to prevent mortar from entering the interior of the pipe. 

42 



JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS 



Jute or hemp shall be dipped into a slurry suspension of port- 
land cement in water prior to insertion into bell. Not more than 
25 per cent of the joint space shall be used for jute or hemp. 
The remaining space shall be filled in one continuous opera- 
tion with a thoroughly mixed mortar coPiposed of one part ce- 
ment and two parts sand, with only sufficient water to make 
the mixture workable by hand. After one-half hour of setting, 
the joint shall be rammed around entire periphery with a blunt 
tool to force the partially stiffened mortar into the joint and to 
repair any cracks formed during the initial setting period. Pipe 
interior shall be swabbed to remove any material that might 
have fallen into the interior. Additional mortar of the same 
composition shall then be troweled so as to form a 45 deg taper 
with the barrel of the pipe. 

4.2.10 Burned Lead Joints. Burned (welded) lead joints 
shall be lapped and the lead shall be fused together to form a 
uniform weld at least as thick as the lead being joined, 

4.2.11 Asbestos Cement Sewer Pipe Joints. Joints in 
asbestos cement pipe shall be made with sleeve couplings of 
the same composition as the pipe, sealed with rubber rings. 
Joints between asbestos cement pipe and metal pipe shall be 
made by means of an adapter coupling calked as required in 
paragraph 4.2.1. 

4.2.12 Bituminized Fiber Pipe Joints. Joints in bitumi- 
nized fiber pipe shall be made with tapered type couplings of 
the same material as the pipe. Joints between bituminized 
fiber pipe and metal pipe shall be made by means of an adapter 
coupling calked as required in paragraph 4.2.1. 

4.3 USE OF JOINTS 

4.3.1 Clay Sewer Pipe. Joints in vitrified clay pipe or 
between such pipe and metal pipe shall be made as provided 
in paragraphs 4.2.6 and 4.2.7. 

4.3.2 Concrete Sewer Pipe. Joints in concrete sewer 
pipe or between such pipe and metal pipe shall be made as 
in paragraphs 4.2.6 and 4.2.7. 

4.3.3 Cast-Iron Pipe. Joints in cast-iron pipe shall be 
either calked or screwed, as provided in paragraphs 4.2.1 and 
4.2.2. 



43 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



4.3.4 Screw Pipe to Cast-iron. Joints between wrought- 
iron, steel, brass, or copper pipe, and cast-iron pipe shall be 
either calked or threaded joints made as provided in paragraphs 
4.2.1 and 4.2.2, or shall be made with approved adapter fit- 
tings. 

4.3.5 Lead to Cast Iron, Wrought Iron or Steel. Joints 
between lead and cast-iron, wrought-iron, or steel pipe shall 
be made by means of wiped joints to a calking ferrule, solder- 
ing nipple, or bushing as provided in paragraph 4.2.3. 

4.3.6 Copper Water Tube. Joints in copper tubing shall 

be made either by the appropriate use of approved brass or 
wrought copper water fittings, properly sweated or soldered 
together or by means of approved compression fittings as pro- 
vided in paragraphs 4.2.4 and 4.2.5. 

4.4 SPECIAL JOINTS 

4.4.1 Copper Tubing to Screwed Pipe Joints. Joints 
from copper tubing to threaded pipe shall be made by the use 
of brass converter fittings. The joint between the copper pipe 
and the fitting shall be properly sweated or soldered, and the 
connection between the threaded pipe and the fitting shall be 
made with a standard pipe size screw joint. 

4.4.2 Welding or Brazing. Brazing or welding shall be 
performed in accordance with requirements of recognized 
published standards of practice and by licensed or otherwise 
qualified mechanics, except when it is determined by the ad- 
ministrative authority to be equivalent procedure for diepurpose 
of this code. 

4.4.3 Slip Joints. In drainage and water piping, slip 
joints may be used only on the inlet side of the trap or in the 
trap seal, and on the exposed fixture supply. 

4.4.4 Expansion Joints. Expansion joints must be ac- 
cessible and may be used where necessary to provide for ex- 
pansion and contraction of the pipes. 

4.4.5 Ground Joint Brass Connections. Ground joint 
brass connections which allow adjustment of tubing but pro- 
vide a rigid joint when made up shall not be considered as 
slip joints. 

44 



JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS 



4.5 UNIONS (SCREWED) 

4.5.1 Drainage System. Unions may be used in the trap 
seal and on the inlet side of the trap. Unions shall have 
metal-to-metal seats. 

4.5.2 Water-Supply System. Unions in the water-supply 
system shall be metal-to-metal with ground seats. 

4.6 WATER CLOSET, PEDESTAL URINAL, 
AND TRAP STANDARD SERVICE 

4.6.1 Fixture connections between drainage pipes and 

water closets, floor-outlet service sinks, pedestal. urinals, and 
earthenware trap standards, shall be made by means of brass, 
hard-lead, or iron flanges, calked, soldered, or screwed to the 
drainage pipe. The connection shall be bolted, with an ap- 
proved gasket or washer or setting compound between the 
earthenware and the connection. The floor flange shall be set 
on an approved firm base. The use of commercial putty or 
plaster is prohibited. 

4.7 PROHIBITED JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS 

4.7.1 Drainage System. Any fitting or connection which 
has an enlargement, chamber, or recess with a ledge, shoulder, 
or reduction of pipe area, that offers an obstruction to flow 
through the drain, is prohibited. 

4.7.2 No fitting or connection that offers abnormal ob- 
struction to flow, shall be used. The enlargement of a 3-inch 
closet bend or stub to 4 inches shall not be considered an 
obstruction. 

4.8 WATERPROOFING OF OPENINGS 

4.8.1 Joints at the roof, around vent pipes, shall be made 

watertight by the use of lead, copper, galvanized-iron, or other 
approved flashings or flashing material. Exteripr-wall open- 
ings shall be made watertight. 

4.9 INCREASERS AND REDUCERS 

4.9.1 Where different sizes of pipes, or pipes and fittings 

are to be connected, the proper size increasers or reducers or 
reducing fittings shall be used between the two sizes. 



45 



Chapter 5 
TRAPS AND CLEANOUTS 

5.1 TRAPS 

5.1.1 Fixture Traps. Plumbing fixtures, excepting those 
having integral traps, shall be separately trapped by a water- 
seal trap, placed as close to the fixture outlet as possible. 

(a) Provided, that a combination plumbing fixture may be 
installed on one trap, if one compartment is not more 
than 6 inches deeper than the other and the waste out- 
lets are not more than 30 inches apart. 

(b) Provided, that one trap may be installed for a set of 
not more than three single-compartment sinks or laundry 
trays or three lavatories immediately adjacent to each 
other in the same room, if the waste outlets are not 
more than 30 inches apart and the trap is centrally 
located when three compartments are installed. 

5.1.2 Distance of Trap to Fixture. The vertical distance 
from the fixture outlet to the trap weir shall not exceed 24 
inches. 

5.2 TYPE AND SIZE OF TRAPS AND FIXTURE DRAINS 

5.2.1 Trap Size. The size (nominal diameter) of trap 
for a given fixture shall be sufficient to drain the fixture 
rapidly but in no case less than given in Chapter 11, Table 
11.4.2. 

5.2.2 Relation to Fixture Drains. No trap shall be 
larger than the fixture drain to which it is connected. 

5.2.3 Type of Traps 

(a) Fixture traps shall be self-cleaning other than integral 
traps without partitions or movable parts, except as 
specifically approved in other sections of this Code. 

(b) Slip joints or couplings may be used on the trap inlet 
or within the trap seal of the trap if metal-to-metal 
ground joint is used. 

46 



TRAPS AND CLEANOUTS 



(c) A trap integral with the fixture shall have a uniform 
interior and smooth waterway. 

5.2.4 Drum Traps 

(a) Drum traps shall be 3 or 4 inches in diameter and shall 
be provided with a water seal of not less than 2 inches. 

(b) The trap screw shall be one size less than the trap 
diameter. 

5.3 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 

5. 3-1 Trap Seal. Each fixture trap shall have a water 

seal of not less than 2 inches and not more than 4 inches, 
except where a deeper seal is required by the Administrative 
Authority for special conditions. 

5.3.2 Trap Cleanouts 

(a) Each fixture trap, except those cast integral or in com- 
bination with fixtures in which the trap seal is readily 
accessible or except when a portion of the trap is 
readily removable for cleaning purposes, shall have an 
accessible brass trap screw of ample size protected by 
this water seal. 

(b) Cleanouts on the seal of a trap shall be made tight with 
threaded cleanout plug and approved washer. 

5.3.3 Trap Level and Protection. Traps shall be set 
true with respect to their water seals and, where necessary, 
they shall be protected from freezing. 

5.3.4 Traps Underground. Underground traps, except 
"P" traps into which floor drains with removable strainers 
discharge, shall be provided with accessible and removable 
cleanouts, 

5.3-5 Building (House) Traps 

(a) Each building trap when installed, shall be provided 
with a cleanout and a relieving vent or fresh air intake. 

(b) Relieving vents or fresh air intakes need not be larger 
than 1/2 the diameter of the drain to which they connect. 

(c) Building (house) traps shall not be installed except 
where so required by the Administrative Authority, to 
accomplish the purpose of this code. 

47 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 

5.3.6 Prohibited Traps 

(a) No trap which depends for its seal upon the action of 
movable parts shall be used. 

(b) Full "S" traps are prohibited. 

(c) Bell traps are prohibited. 

(d) Crown-vented traps are prohibited. 

5.3.7 Double Trapping. No fixture shall be double trapped. 

5.4 PIPE CLEANOUTS 

5.4.1 Location. Cleanouts shall be not more than 50 

feet apart in horizontal drainage lines of 4-inch nominal 
diartieter or less and not more than 100 feet apart for larger 
pipes. 

5.4.2 Underground Driaitiage. Cleanouts, when installed 
on an underground drain, shall be extended to or above the 
finished grade level directly above the place where the clean- 
out is installed; or may be extended to outside of the building 
when found necessary by the Administrative Authority. 

5.4.3 Change of Direction. Cleanouts shall be installed 
at each change of direction of the building drain greater than 
45 deg. 

5.4.4 Concealed Piping. Cleanouts on concealed piping 
shall be extended through and terminate flush with the finished 
wall or floor; or pits or chases may be left in the wall or 
floor, provided they are of sufficient size to permit removal of 
the cleanout plug and proper cleaning of the system. 

5.4.5 Base of Stacks. A cleanout shall be provided at 
or near the foot of each vertical waste or soil stack. For 
buildings with a floor slab on fill or ground or with less than 
18-inch crawl space under the floor the following will be ac- 
ceptable in lieu of a cleanout at the base of the stack. The 
building drain may be extended to the outside of the building 
and terminated in an accessible cleanout or an accessible 
cleanout installed in the building drain downstream from the 
stack not more than 5 feet outside the building wall. 

5.4.6 Building Drain Junction. There shall be a clea;i' 
out near the junction of the building drain and building sewer 
or a cleanout with "Y" branch inside the building wall. 

48 



TRAPS AND CLEANOUTS 



5.4.7 Direction of Flow. Every cleanout shall be in- 
stalled so that the cleanout opens in a direction opposite to 
the flow of the drainage line or at right angle thereto. 

5.4.8. Cleanout plugs shall not be used for the install- 

ation, of new fixtures or floor drains except where approved in 
writing by the Administrative Authority. 

5.5 SIZE OF CLEANOUTS 

5.5.1 Small Pipes. Cleanouts shall be of the same 
nominal size as the pipes up to 4 inches and not less than 4 
inches for larger piping. 

5.5.2 Large Pij>es. For underground piping over 10 
inches, manholes shall be provided and located at each 90 
deg change in direction and at intervals of not more than 
150 feet. 

5.5.3 Covers. Metal covers shall be provided for man- 
holes. 



5.6 CLEANOUT CLEARANCES 

5.6.1 haige Pipes. Cleanouts on 3-inch or larger pipes 
shall be so installed that there is a clearance of not less than 
18 inches for the purpose of rodding. 

5.6.2 Small Pipes. Cleanouts smaller than 3 inches 
shall be so installed that there is a 12-inch clearance for 
rodding. 

5.6.3 Calking. Cement, plaster, or any other permanent 
finishing material shall not be placed over a cleanout plug. 

5.6.4 Concealment. Where it is necessary to conceal a 
cleanout plug, a covering plate or access door shall be pro- 
vided which will permit ready access to the plug. 

5.7 CLEANOUT EQUIVALENT 

5.7.1 A fixture trap or a fixture with integral trap, readily 

removable without disturbing concealed roughing work, may be 
accepted as a cleanout equivalent, if there is no more than 
one 90 deg bend on the line to be rodded. 

49 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



5.8 ACroPROOF TRAPS 

Where a vitrified-clay or other brittleware, acidproof trap is 
installed underground, it shall be embedded in concrete to a 
thickness of 6 inches from the bottom and sides of the trap. 



50 



Chapter 6 
INTERCEPTORS - SEPARATORS AND 
BACKWATER VALVES 



6.1 INTERCEPTORS AND SEPARATORS 

6.1.1 When Required. Interceptors (including grease, oil, 
and sand interceptors, etc.) shall be provided when, in the 
opinion of the Administrative Authority, they are necessary for 
the proper handling of liquid wastes containing grease, flam- 
mable wastes, sand and other ingredients harmful to the build- 
ing drainage system, the public sewer or sewage-treatment 
plant or processes. 

6.1.2 Approval. The size, type, and location of each in- 
terceptor or separator shall be approved by the Administrative 
Authority and no wastes other than those requiring treatment 
or separation shall be discharged into any interceptor. 

6.1.3 No grease interceptor shall be hereinafter installed 
which does not comply, in all respects with the type or model 
of each size thereof approved by the department having juris- 
diction. 

6.1.4 Separation. A mixture of light and heavy solids or 
liquids and solids having various specific gravities may be 
treated and then separated in an interceptor as approved by 
the Administrative Authority, in accordance with paragraph 
6.1.2. 



6.2 GREASE INTERCEPTORS 

6.2.1 Commercial Buildings. A grease interceptor shall 

be installed in the waste line leading from sinks, drains, or 
other fixtures in the following establishments when, in the 
opinion of the Administrative Authority, a hazard exists: res- 
taurants, hotel kitchens or bars, factory cafeterias or restau- 
rants, clubs, or other establishments where grease can be in- 
troduced into the drainage system in quantities that can affect 
line stoppage or hinder sewage disposal. 

51 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



6.2.2 Residential Units. A grease interceptor is not re- 

quired for individual dwelling units or any private living quar- 
ters. 

6.3 OIL SEPARATORS 

6.3.1 An oil separator shall be installed in the drainage 

system or section of the system where, in the opinion of the 
Administrative Authority, a hazard exists or where oils or other 
flammables can be introduced or admitted into, the drainage 
system by accident or otherwise. 

6.4 SAND INTERCEPTORS 

6.4.1 Commercial Installations. Sand and similar inter- 

ceptors for heavy solids shall be so designed and located as 
to be readily accessible for cleaning, and shall have a water 
seal of not less than 6 inches. 

6.5 VENTING INTERCEPTORS 

6.5.1 Relief Vent. Interceptors shall be so designed that 
they will not become air bound if closed covers are used. Each 
interceptor shall be properly vented. 

6.6 ACCESSIBILITY OF INTERCEPTOR 

6.6.1 Each interceptor shall be so installed as to pro- 

vide ready accessibility to the cover and means for servicing 
and maintaining the interceptor in working and operating con- 
dition. The use of ladders or the removal of bulky equipment 
in order to service interceptors shall constitute a violation of 
accessibility. 

6.7 INTERCEPTOR'S EFFICIENCY 

6.7.1 Flow Rate. Interceptors shall be rated and ap- 
proved for their efficiency as directed by the Administrative 
Authority and in accordance with generally accepted practice. 

6.7.2 Approval. No grease interceptor shall be approved 
until it has successfully passed the testing and rating pro- 
cedure set up by the Administrative Authority. 

6.7.3 Water Connection. Water connection for cooling or 
operating an interceptor shall be such that backflow cannot 
occur. 

52 



INTERCEPTORS, SEPARATORS, BACKWATER VALVES 



6.8 LAUNDRIES 

6.8.1 Interceptors. Commercial laundries shall be equip- 
ped with an interceptor having a removable wire basket or 
similar device that will prevent strings, rags, buttons or other 
materials detrimental to the public sewerage system from pass- 
ing into the drainage system. 

6.8.2 Intercepting Device. Basket or device shall pre- 
vent passage into the drainage system of solids l/2 inch or 
larger in size. The basket or device shall be removable for 
cleaning purposes. 

6.9 BOTTLING ESTABLISHMENTS 

6.9.1 Bottling Plants,. Bottling plants shall discharge 

their process wastes into an interceptor which will provide for 
the separation of broken glass or other solids, before dis- 
charging liquid wastes into the drainage system. 



6.10 SLAUGHTER HOUSES 

6.10.1 Separators. Slaughtering-room drains shall be 
equipped with separators which shall prevent the discharge 
into the drainage system of feathers, entrails, and other mate- 
rials likely to clog the drainage system. 

6.10.2 Interceptors. Slaughtering and dressing room drains 
shall be provided with interceptors approved by the Adminis- 
trative Authority , in accordance with paragraph 6.1.2. 

6.10.3 Food-Grinder. Wastes may discharge directly to the 
building drainage system. 



6.11 COMMERCIAL GRINDERS 

6.11.1 Discharge. Where commercial food-waste grinders 
are installed, the waste from those units may discharge direct 
into the building drainage system and not through a grease in- 
terceptor. 

6.11.2 Approval. The Administrative Authority shall de- 
termine where and what type of interceptor is required, except 
that interceptors shall not be required for private living quar- 
ters or residential units. 



53 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



6.12 MAINTENANCE 

6.12.1 Cleaning. Interceptors shall be maintained in effi- 
cient operating condition by periodic removal of accumulated 
grease. 

6.13 OIL INTERCEPTORS 

6.13.1 Where Required. Oil separators shall be installed 
when- required by the Administrative Authority and shall con- 
form to requirements of paragraph 6.13-2. 

6.13.2 Minimum Dimension. Oil separators shall have a 
depth of not less than 2 feet below the invert of the discharge 
drain. 

6.13.3 Motor Vehicle Storage. Interceptors shall have a 
capacity of 6 cubic feet where not more than three vehicles 
a-re serviced and one cubic foot in net capacity shall be added 
for each additional vehicle up to ten vehicles. Where more than 
ten vehicles are serviced and stored, the Administrative Au- 
thority shall determine the size of separator required. 

6.13.4 Motor Vehicle Servicing. Where storage facilities 
are not maintained, as in repair shops, the capacity of the 
separator shall be based on a net capacity of 1 cubic foot for 
each 100 square feet of surface to be drained into the inter- 
ceptor with a minimum capacity of 6 cubic feet. 

6.13-5 Special Type Separators. Before installing any spe- 
cial type separator a drawing including all pertinent informa- 
tion shall be submitted for approval of the Administrative Au- 
thority, as being in accordance with this code. 

6.14 BACKWATER VALVES 

6.14.1 Fixtures Subject to Backflow. The installation of 
backwater devices shall be in accordance with lawful require- 
ments of the Administrative Authority having jurisdiction over 
the public sewer system. 

6.14.2 Fixture Branches. Backwater valves shall be in- 
stalled in the branch of the building drain which receives only 
the discharge from fixtures located within such branch and be- 
low grade. 

6.14.3 Material. Backwater valves shall have all bearing 
parts of corrosion-resistant material. 

54 



INTERCEPTORS, SEPARATORS, BACKWATER VALVES 

6.14.4 Backwater valves shall be so constructed as to in- 
sure a mechanical seal against backflow. 

6.14.5 Diameter. Backwater valves, when fully opened, 
shall have a capacity not less than that of the pipes in which 
they are installed. 

6.14.6 Location. Backwater valves shall be so installed 
as to provide ready accessibility to their working parts. 



55 



Chapter 7 
PLUMBING FIXTURES 

7.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS - MATERIALS 

7.1.1 Quality of Fixtures. Plumbing fixtures shall be 

constructed from approved materials, have smooth impervious 
surfaces, be free from defects and concealed fouling surfaces, 
and, except as permitted elsewhere in this Code, shall con- 
form in quality and design to one of the following standards: 

Staple Porcelain Plumbing Fixtures, NBS Commercial 
Standard CS 4-29- 

Vitreous China Plumbing Fixtures, NBS Commercial Standard 
CS 20-49. 

Enameled Cast-Iron Plumbing Fixtures, NBS Commercial 
Standard CS 77-48. 

Earthenware (vitreous glazed) Plumbing Fixtures, NBS Com- 
mercial Standard CS 111-43- 

Plumbing Fixtures (for) Land Use, F.S. WW-P-541a-1947. 

Formed Steel Enameled Sanitary Ware, F.S. WW-P-542. 

Formed Metal Porcelain Enameled Sanitary Ware, NBS Com- 
mercial Standard CS 144-47. 

Hospital Plumbing Fixtures, NBS Simplified Practice 
Recommendation R 106-41. 

Plumbing Fixtures, Fittings, Trim R 227-47. 

Lavatory and Sink Traps R 21-46. 

7.2 ALTERNATE MATERIALS 

7.2.1 Materials. Sinks and special fixtures may be made 

of soapstone, chemical stoneware, or may be lined with lead, 
copper-base alloy, nickel-copper alloy, corrosion-resisting 
steel or other materials especially suited to the use for which 
the fixture is intended. 

7.3 OVERFLOWS 

7.3-1 Design. When any fixture is provided with an over- 

flow, the waste shall be so arranged that the standing water in 

56 



PLUMBING FIXTURES 



the fixture cannot rise in the overflow when the stopper is 
closed or remain in the overflow when the fixture is empty. 

7.3.2 Connection. The overflow pipe from a fixture shall 
be connected on the house or inlet side of the fixture trap, ex- 
cept that overflows of flush tanks may discharge into the water 
closets or urinals served by them, but it shall be unlawful to 
connect such overflows with any other part of the drainage 
system. 

7.4 INSTALLATION 

7.4.1 Cleaning. Plumbing fixtures shall be installed in 
a manner to afford easy access for cleaning. Where practical, 
all pipes from fixtures shall be run to the nearest wall. 

7.4.2 Joints. Where fixture comes in contact with wall 
and floors, the joint shall be watertight. 

7.4.3 Securing Fixtures. Floor-outlet fixtures shall be 
rigidly secured to floor by screws or bolts. 

7.4.4 Wall-Hung Bowls. Wall-hung water-closet bowls 
shall be rigidly supported by a concealed metal supporting 
member so that no strain is transmitted to the closet connec- 
tion. 

7.4.5 Setting. Fixtures shall be set level and in proper 
alignment with reference to adjacent walls, (see par. 4.6.1.) 

7.5 WATER-SUPPLY PROTECTION 

7.5.1 Supply Fittings. The supply lines or fittings for 

every plumbing fixture shall be so installed as to prevent back- 
flow. (See paragraph 10.4.3.) 

7.6 PROHIBITED FIXTURES AND CONNECTIONS 

7.6.1 Fixtures. Pan, valve, plunger, offset, washout, 
latrine, frostproof, and other water closets having an invisible 
seal or an unventilated space or having walls which are not 
thoroughly washed at each discharge, shall be prohibited. Any 
water closet which might permit siphonage of the contents of 
the bowl back into the tank shall be prohibited. 

7.6.2 Connections. Fixtures having concealed slip-joint 
connections shall be provided with an access panel or utility 

57 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



Space so arranged as to make the slip connections accessible 
for inspection and repair. 

7.7 WATER CLOSETS 

7.7.1 Public Use. Water-closet bowls for public use shall 
be of the elongated type. 

7.7.2 Flushing Device. Water-closet tanks shall have a 
flushing capacity sufficient to properly flush the water-closet 
bowls with which they are connected. 

7.7.3 Float Valves. Float valves in lowdown tanks shall 
close tight and provide water to properly refill the trap seal in 
the bowl. 

7.7.4 Close-Coupled Tanks. The flush-valve seat in 
closed-coupled water-closet combinations shall be 1 inch or 
more above the rim of the bowl, so that the flush-valve will 
close even if the closet trapway is cjogged; or any closets 
with flush valve seats below the rim of the bowl shall be so 
constructed that in case of trap stoppage, water will not flow 
continuously over the rim of the bowl. 

7.7.5 Automatic Flush Valve. Flushometer shall be so 
installed that they will be readily accessible for repairing. 
When the valve is operated, it shall complete the cycle of 
operation automatically, opening fully and closing positively 
under the service pressure. At each operation the valve shall 
deliver water in sufficient volume and at a rate that will 
thoroughly flush the fixture and refill the fixture trap. Means 
shall be provided for regulating flush-valve flow. Not more 
than one fixture shall be served by a single flush valve. Pro- 
tection against backfiow shall be provided as specified in 
paragraph 7.5- 

7.7.6 Seats. Water closets shall be equipped with seats 
of smooth non-absorbent material. All seats of water closets 
provided for public use shall be of the open-front type. Integral 
water-closet seats shall be of the same material as the fixture. 

7.8 URINALS 

7.8.1 Automatic Flushing Tank. Tanks flushing more 

than one urinal shall be automatic in operation and of suffi- 
cient capacity to provide the necessary volume to flush and 
properly cleanse all urinals simultaneously. 



58 



PLUMBING FIXTURES 



7.8.2 Urinals Equipped with Automatic Flush Valves. 

Flushometer shall be as prescribed in paragraph .7.7.5 and no 
valve shall be used to flush more than one urinal. 

7.8.3 Trough Urinals. Trough urinals shall be permitted 
only in places of temporary occupancy. They shall be not less 
than 6 inches deep and shall be furnished with one-piece backs 
and have strainers with outlets at least VA inches in diameter. 
The washdown pipe shall be performated so as to flush with 
an even curtain of water against the back of the urinal. This 
pipe shall be securely clamped as high as practicable to the 
back of the urinal. Trough urinals shall have tanks with a 
flushing capacity of not less than VA gallons of water for each 
2 feet of urinal length. 

7.8.4 Equivalent Length. Trough urinals shall be figured 
on the basis of one (1) urinal for each 18 inches of length, i.e. 

24 in. trough equals 1 urinal 
36 in. trough equals 2 urinals 
48 in. trough equals 2 urinals 
i60 in. trough equals 3 urinals 
72 in. trough equals 4 urinals 

7.8.5 Floor-type Urinals. Floor-type trough urinals are 
prohibited. 

7.8.6 Surrounding Materials. Wall and floor space to a 
point 1 foot in front of urinal lip and 4 feet above the floor, 
and at least, 1 foot to each side of the urinal shall be lined 
with nonabsorbent material. 

7.9 STRAINERS AND FIXTURE OUTLETS 

7.9.1 All plumbing fixtures, other than water closets and 

syphon-action washdown or blowout urinals, shall be provided 
with metal strainers having waterway area complying with par- 
agraph 7.1.1. 

7.10 LAVATORIES 

7.10.1 Waste Outlets. Lavatories shall have waste outlets 
not less than 1^ inches in diameter. Wastes may have open 
strainers or may be provided with stoppers. 

59 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



7.11 SHOWER RECEPTORS AND COMPARTMENTS 

7.11.1 Shower. All shower compartments, except those 
built directly on the ground or those having metal enameled 
receptors, shall have alead or copper shower pan or the equiva- 
lent thereof or as determined by the Administrative Authority. 
The pan shall turn up on all sides at least 2 inches above fin- 
ished floor level. Traps shall be so constructed that the pan 
may be securely fastened to the trap at the seepage entrance 
making a watertight joint between the pan and trap. Shower 
receptacle waste outlets shall be not less than 2 inches and 
having removable strainer. 

7.11.2 On the Ground. Shower receptors built on the 
ground shall be constructed from dense nonabsorbent and non- 
corrosive materials and shall have smooth impervious surfaces, 
or as provided in paragraph 7.11.1. 

l.ll.y- Dimensions. Shower compartments shall have not 
less than 1,024 square inches in floor area and, if rectangular, 
square, or triangular in plan, shall be not less than 30 inches 
in shortest dimension. 

7.11.4 Construction. Floors under shower compartments 
shall belaid on a smooth and structurally sound base and shall 
be lined and made watertight with sheet lead, copper or other 
acceptable materials. Shower compartments located in base- 
ments, cellars, or in other rooms in which the floor has been 
laid directly on the ground surface need not be lined. 

7.11.5 Public or Institution Showers. Floors of public 
shower rooms shall be drained in such a manner that no waste 
water from any head will pass over areas occupied by other 
bathers. 

7.11.6 Walls! Shower compartments shall have walls con- 
structed of smooth, noncorrosive and nonabsorbent waterproof 
materials to a height of not less than 6 feet above the floor. 

7.11.7 Joints. Built-in tubs with overhead showers shall 
have waterproof joints between the tub and waterproof wall. 

7.12 SINKS 

7.12.1 Waste Outlets. Sinks shall be provided with waste 
outlets not less than V,4 inches in diameter. Waste outlets may 
have open strainers or may be provided with stoppers. 

60 



PLUMBING FIXTURES 



7.12.2 Food Grinders. Sinks on which a food grinder 
is installed shall have a waste opening not less than 3^2 inches 
in diameter. 

7.13 FOOD- WASTE -GRINDER UNITS 

7.13.1 Separate Connections. Domestic food-waste-dis- 
posal units may be connected and trapped separately from 
any other fixture or compartment. Units may have either auto- 
matic or hand-operated water supply control. (See paragraph 
10.4.) 

7.13.2 Grease Interceptors. No food-waste grinder shall 
be connected through a grease interceptor. 

7.13.3 Commercial-type Grinders. Commercial-type food- 
grinders shall be provided with not less than a 2-inch waste 
line. Each waste shall be trapped and vented as provided in 
other sections of this Code. 

7.14 DRINKING FOUNTAINS 

7.14.1 Design and Construction. Drinking fountains shall 
conform to American Standard Specifications for Drinking Foun- 
tains. (ASA Z4. 2-1942.) 

7.14.2 Protection of Water Supply. Stream projectors 
shall be so assembled as to provide an orifice elevation as 
specified by American Standard Air Gaps in Plumbing Systems 
(ASA A40. 4-1942) and American Standard Backflow Preventers 
in Plumbing Systems (ASA A40.6-1943.) 

7.15 FLOOR DRAINS 

7.15.1 Trap and Strainers. Floor drains shall have metal 
traps and a minimum water seal of 3 inches and shall be pro- 
vided with removable strainers. The open area of strainer 
shall be at least two-thirds of the cross-section area of the 
drain line to which it connects. 

7.15.2 Size. Floor drains shall be of a size to serve ef- 
ficiently the purpose for which it is intended. 

7.16 DISHWASHING MACHINES 

7.16.1 Protection. Domestic dishwashing machines shall 
meet requirements in paragraph 10.4.3- 

61 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



7.16.2 Separate Trap. Each unit shall be separately 
trapped or discharge indirectly into a properly trapped and 
vented fixture. 

7.16.3 Air Gap. Commercial dishwashing machines shall 
be connected through an air gap or as provided in Chapter 9 
"Indirect Waste Piping and Special Wastes." 

7.16.4 Hot Water. Dishwashing machines or similar dish- 
washing equipment not in private living quarters or dwelling 
units shall be provided with water at 180 deg. F for sterili- 
zation. 

7.17 MULTIPLE WASH SINKS 

7.17.1 Circular Type. Each 18 inches of wash sink cir- 
cumference (circular type) shall be equivalent to one lavatory. 

7.17.2 Straight-Line Type. Multiple wash sinks of the 
straight-line type shall have hot and cold combination spouts 
not closerthan 18 inches from adjacent similar spouts and each 
spout shall be considered the equivalent of one lavatory. 

7.18 GARBAGE -CAN WASHERS 

7.18.1 Discharge. Garbage-can washers shall not dis- 
charge through a trap serving any other device or fixture. 

7.18.2 Grease Interceptor. The discharge from a garbage- 
can washer shall be connected through a grease interceptor. 

7. 18. 3 Baskets. The receptacle receiving the wash from 
garbage cans shall be provided with a basket or similar device 
to prevent the discharge of large particles into the building 
drainage system. 

7.18.4 Connections. Water Supply connections shall con- 
form to paragraph 10.4.3. 

7.19 LAUNDRY TRAYS 

7.19.1 Waste Outlets. Each compartment of a laundry 
tray shall be provided with a waste outlet not less than lH 
inches in diameter and with a stopper. 

7.19.2 Overflow. Laundry-tray overflows shall conform to 
the requirements of paragraph 7.3.1' 

62 



PLUMBING FIXTURES 



7.20 SPECIAL FIXTURES AND SPECIALTIES 

7.20.1 Water and Drain Connections. Baptistries, orna- 
mental and lily pools, aquaria, ornamental fountain basins and 
similar constructions when provided with water supplies shall 
be protected from back-siphonage as required in paragraph 
10.4.3. 

7.20.2 Approval. Specialties requiring water and waste 
connections shall be submitted for approval of the Admini- 
strative Authority. 

7.21 MINIMUM FACILITIES 

7.21.1 Wherever plumbing fixtures are installed, the mini- 
mum number of each type of fixture installed shall be in ac- 
cordance with Table 7.21.2? unless otherwise specifically pro- 
vided. 



63 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 






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64 



PLUMBING FIXTURES 





1 for each 

75 
persons 


« o 


1 shower for 
each 15 per- 
sons exposed 
to excessive 
heat or to skin 
contamination 
with poison- 
ous, infec- 
tious, or irri- 
tating material 


1 for each 8 
persons. In 
the case of 
women's dor- 
mitories, ad- 
ditional bath- 
tubs should 
be installed at 
the ratio of 1 
for each 30 
females. 

Over 150 per- 
sons, add 1 
fixture for 
each 20 per- 
sons. 


1-100 persons, 1 
fixture for each 
10 persons. 

Over 100, 1 
for each 15 
persons^'* 


1 for each 12 per 
sons. (Separate 
dental lavatories 
should be pro- 
vided in com- 
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rooms. Ration of 
dental lavatories 
for each 50 per- 
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mended.) Add 1 
lavatory for each 
20 males, 1 for 
each 15 females. 


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Female: 1 for each 

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65 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



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66 



Chapter 8 
HANGERS AND SUPPORTS 



8.1 STRAIN AND STRESSES 

8.1.1 General. Piping in a plumbing system shall be in- 
stalled without undue strains and stresses and provision shall 
be made for expansion, contraction, and structural settlement. 

8.2 VERTICAL PIPING 

8.2.1 Attachment. Vertical piping shall be secured at 
sufficiently close intervals to keep the pipe in alignment and 
carry the weight of the pipe and contents. 

8.2.2 Cast-Iron Soil Pipe. Cast-iron soil pipe shall be 
supported at not less than at every story height and at its 
base. 

8.2.3 Screwed Pipe. Screwed pipe (SPS) shall be sup- 
ported at not less than every other story height. 

8.2.4 Copper Tubing. Copper tubing shall be supported 
at each story for piping lV2 inches and over and at not more 
than 4-foot intervals for piping 1% inches and smaller. 

8.2.5 Lead Pipe. Lead pipe shall be supported at in- 
tervals not exceeding 4 feet. 

8.3 HORIZONTAL PIPING 

8.3.1 Supports. Horizontal piping shall be supported at 
sufficiently close intervals to keep it in alignment and pre- 
vent sagging. 

8.3.2 Cast-iron Soil Pipe. Cast-iron soil pipe shall be 
supported at not more than 5-foot intervals. 

8.3.3 Screwed Pipe. Screwed pipe (S.P.S.) shall be sup- 
ported at approximately 12-foot intervals. 

8.3.4 Copper Tubing. Copper tubing shall be supported 
at approximately 6-foot intervals for piping 1 1/2 inches and 
smaller and 10-foot intervals for piping 2 inches and larger. 

67 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 

8.3.5 Lead Pipe. Lead pipe shall be supported by strips 
or otherwise for its entire length. 

8.3.6 In Ground. Piping in the ground shall be laid on a 
firmbed for its entire length, except where supp)ort is otherwise 
provided which is adequate in the judgment of the Administra- 
tive Authority. 

8.4 HANGERS AND ANCHORS 

8.4.1 Material. Hangers and anchors shall be of metal 
of sufficient strength to maintain their proportional share ol 
the pipe alignments and prevent rattling. 

8.4.2 Attachment. Hangers and anchors shall be secure- 
ly attached to the building construction. 

8.5 STRAINS AND STRESSES 

8.5.1 Installation of Pipe. Piping in a plumbing system 
shall be so installed as to prevent undue strains and stresses. 

8.5.2 Expansion and Contraction. Provision shall be 
made for expansion and cor\traction of piping and for struc- 
tural settlement that may affect the piping. 

8.5.3 Piping in Concrete. Piping in concrete or masonry 
walls or footings shall be placed or installed in chases or 
recesses which will permit access to the piping for repair or 
replacement. 

8.6 BASE OF STACKS 

8.6.1 Supports. Bases of cast-iron soil stacks shall be 
supported on concrete, brick laid in cement mortar, metal 
brackets attached to the building construction, or by other 
methods approved by the Administrative Authority. 

8.6.2 Piping Material. Other piping material shall be 
so anchored as to take the load off the stack at the base. 



68 



Chapter 9 
INDIRECT WASTE PIPING AND 
SPECIAL WASTES 

9.1 INDIRECT WASTE PIPING 

9.1.1 General. Wastes from the following shall dis- 
charge to the building drainage system through an air gap serv- 
ing the individual fixtures, devices, appliances or apoaratus. 

9.1.2 Food Handling. Establishments engaged in the 
storage, preparation, selling, serving, processing, or other- 
wise handling of food shall have the waste piping from all 
refrigerators, ice boxes, rinse sinks, cooling or refrigerating 
coils, laundry washers, extractors, steam tables, egg boilers, 
coffee urHs or similar equipment discharge indirectly into a 
water-supplied sink or receptor and the waste oudet shall 
terminate at least 2 inches above the flood rim of such sink or 
receptor. 

9.1.3 Commercial Dishwashing Machines. Dishwashing 
machines, except those in private living quarters or dwelling 
units, shall be indirectly connected, except that when a dish- 
washing machine is located adjacent to a floor drain the waste 
from the dishwashing machine may be connected direct on the 
sewer side of the floor-drain trap. 

9.1.4 Interceptor. An interceptor may be placed on the 
outlet side of the dishwashing machine, or on the discharge 
side of the indirect waste receptor. 

9.1.5 Connection. Indirect waste connections shall be 
provided for drains, overflows, or relief vents from the water- 
supply system. 

9.1.6 Sterile Materials. Appliances, devices, or appara- 
tus such as stills, sterilizers, and similar equipment requiring 
water and waste connections and used for sterile material shall 
be indirectly connected or provided with an air gap between the 
trap and the appliance. 

9.1.7 Drips. Appliances, devices, or apparatus not 



69 



AfvCERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



regularly classed as plumbing fixtures but which have drips or 
drainage outlets, may be drained by indirect waste pipes dis- 
charging into an open receptable as provided in paragraph 9. 1.2. 

9.2 MATERIAL AND SIZE 

9.2.1 The material and size of indirect waste pipes shall 

be in accordance with the provisions of the other sections of 
this Code applicable to sanitary-drainage piping. 

9.3 LENGTH 

9.3.1 Waste Pipe. Any indirect waste pipe exceeding 
two feet in length shall be trapped. 

9.3.2 Maximum Length. The maximum length of the in- 
direct waste to vent shall not exceed 15 feet. 

9.3.3 Cleaning. Indirect waste piping shall be so in- 

stalled as to permit ready access for flushing and cleansing. 

9.4 AIR GAP OR BACKFLOW PREVENTER 

9-4.1 Provision of Air Gap. The air gap between the in- 

direct waste and the building drainage system shall be at least 
twice the effective diameter of the drain served and shall be 
as provided in paragraph 9.4.2 or 9.4.3. 

9.4.2 By extending the indirect waste pipe to an open, 
accessible slop sink, floor drain, or other suitable fixture 
which is properly trapped or vented. The indirect waste shall 
terminate a sufficient distance above the flood level rim of 
the receiving fixture to provide the required air gap, and shall 
be installed in accordance with other applicable sections of 
this Code, 

9.4.3 By providing a break (air gap) in the drain con- 
nection on the inlet side of the trap serving the fixture, de- 
vice, appliance or apparatus. 

9.5 RECEPTORS 

9.5.1 Installation. Waste receptors serving indirect 

pipes shall not be installed in any toilet room, nor in any in- 
accessible or unventilated space such as a closet or store- 
room- 



70 



INDIRECT WASTE PIPING AND SPECIAL WASTES 



9.5.2 Cleanout Location. If the indirect waste receptor 
is set below floor level, it shall be equipped with a running 
trap adjacent to the sink with cleanout brought level with the 
floor. 

9.5.3 Strainers and Baskets. Every indirect waste re- 
ceptor shall be equipped either with a readily removable metal 
basket over which all indirect waste pipe shall discharge, or 
the indirect waste receptor outlet shall be equipped with a 
beehive strainer not less than 4 in. in height. 

9.5.4 Splashing. All plumbing receptors receiving the 

discharge of indirect waste pipes, shall be of such shape and 
capacity as to prevent splashing or flooding. No plumbing 
fixture which is used for domestic or culinary purposes shall 
be used to receive the discharge of an indirect waste pipe. 

9.6 CLEAR WATER WASTES 

9.6.1 Water lifts, expansion tanks, cooling jackets, 

sprinkler systems, drip or overflow pans, or similar devices 
which waste clear water only shall discharge onto a roof or 
into the building drainage system through an indirect waste. 

9.7 CONDENSORS AND SUMPS 

9.7.1 No steam pipe shall connect to any part of a drain- 

age or plumbing system, nor shall any water above 140 F be dis- 
charged into any part of a drainage system. Such pipes may be 
indirectly connected by discharging into an interceptor or into 
the drainage system. 

9.8 DRINKING FOUNTAINS 

9.8.1 Drinking fountains may be installed with indirect 

wastes. 

9.9 SPECIAL WASTES 

9.9.1 Acid Waste. Acid and chemical indirect waste 
pipes shall be of materials unaffected by the discharge of such 
wastes. 

9.9.2 Neutralizing Device. In no case shall corrosive 
liquids, spent acids, or other harmful chemicals which might 
destroy or injure a drain, sewer, soil or waste pipe, or which 
might create noxious or toxic fumes, discharge into the plumb- 

71 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



ing system without being thoroughly diluted or neutralized by 
passing through a properly constructed and acceptable dilution 
or neutralizing device. Such device shall be automatically pro- 
vided with a sufficient intake of diluting water or neutralizing 
medium, so as to make its contents noninjurious before being 
discharged into the soil or sewage system. 



9. 10 SWIMMING POOLS 

9.10.1 Piping carrying waste water from swimming or 

wading pools including pool drainage, back wash from filters, 
water from scum gutter drains or floor drains which serve walks 
around pools, shall be installed as an indirect waste utilizing 
any existing circulation pump, if necessary , when indirect 
waste line is below the sewer grade„ 



72 



1 



Chapter 10 
WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



10.1 QUALITY OF WATER SUPPLY 

10.1.1 Potable Water. Potable water is water which is 
satisfactory for drinking, culinary, and domestic purposes, and 
meets the requirements of the Health Authority having juris- 
diction. 

10.1.2 Acceptable Sources. Where a public supply of 
potable water is not available, requirements satisfactory to the 
Administrative Authority shall be observed. (See Appendix A.) 

10.1.3 Nonpotable Water. Nonpotable water may be used 
for flushing water closets and urinals and other fixtures not 
requiring potable water, provided such water shall not be ac- 
cessible for drinking or culinary purposes. 

10.2 COLOR CODE 

10.2.1 Identification of Piping. All piping conveying non- 
potable water shall be adequately and durably identified by a 
distinctive yellow-colored paint so that it is readily distin- 
guished from piping carrying potable water. (See ASA Z53'l- 
1945 Safety Color Code for Marking Physical Hazards.") 

10.3 WATER SUPPLY MANDATORY 

10.3.1 Every building in which plumbing fixtures are in- 
stalled and are for human occupancy or habitation shall be 
provided with an ample supply of pure and wholesome water. 

10.4 PROTECTION OF POTABLE WATER SUPPLY 

10.4.1 Cross Connections. Potable water-supply piping, 
water discharge outlets, backflow prevention devices or sim- 
ilar equipment shall not be so located as to make possible 
their submergence in any contaminated or polluted liquid or 
substance. 

10.4.2 Approval of Devices. Before any device for the 
prevention of backflow or back-siphonage is installed, it shall 

73 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



have first been certified as meeting the requirements of ASA 
A40.6-1943 by a recognized testing laboratory acceptable to 
the Administrative Authority. Devices installed in a potable 
water supply for protection against backflow shall be main- 
tained in good working condition by the person or persons hav- 
ing control of such devices. The Administrative Authority 
having jurisdiction may inspect such devices and, if found to 
be effective or inoperative, shall require the replacement 
thereof. 

10.4.3 Backflow. The water-distributing system shall be 
protected against backflow. Every water outlet shall be pro- 
tected from backflow, preferably by having the outlet end from 
which the water flows spaced a distance above the flood-level 
rim of the receptacle into which the water flows sufficient to 
provide a "minimum required air gap" as defined in ASA 
A40. 4-1942. Where it is not possible to provide a minimum 
air gap, the water outlet shall be equipped with an accessibly 
located backflow preventer complying with ASA A40.6-1943, 
installed on the discharge side of the manual control valve. 
(See Appendix C.) 

10.4.4 Special Devices. Where it is not possible to pro- 
vide either a minimum air gap or a backflow preventer, as may 
be the case in connection with cooling jackets, condensers or 
other industrial or special appliances, the Administrative 
Authority shall require other approved means of protection. 

10.5 VACUUM BREAKERS AND AIR GAPS 

10.5.1 Flushometer. Flushometer shall be equipped with 
an approved vacuum breaker. The vacuum breaker shall be in- 
stalled on the discharge side of the flushing valve with the 
critical level at least 4 inches above the overflow rim of the 
bowl. 

10.5.2 Flushing Tanks. Flushing tanks shall be equipped 
with an approved ball-cock. The ball-cock shall be installed 
with the critical level of the vacuum breaker at least 1 inch 
above the full opening of the overflow pipe. In cases where 
the ball-cock has no hush tube, the bottom of the water supply 
inlet shall be installed 1 inch above the full opening of the 
overflow pipe. 

10.5.3 Trough Urinals. Trough urinals shall be equipped 
with an approved vacuum breaker installed on the discharge 

74 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



side of the last valve and not less than 30 inches above the 
spray pipe. 

10.5.4 Lawn Sprinklers. Lawn sprinkler systems shall 
be equipped with an approved preventer on the discharge side 
of each of the last valves. The backflow preventer shall be 
at least 6 inches above the highest head, and at no time less 
than 6 inches above the surrounding ground. Where combination 
control valves and backflow preventers are installed, the 
bottom of the valve shall constitute the bottom of the backflow 
preventer. (See Appendix C). 

10.5.5 Valve Outlet. Fixtures with hose attachments 
shall be protected by an approved backflow preventer in- 
stalled six inches above the highest point of usage and on the 
discharge side of the valve. 

10.6 WATER SERVICE PIPE 

10.6.1 Except as permitted in paragraph 10.6.2, the under- 
ground water-service pipe and the building drain or building 
sewer shall be not less than 10 feet apart horizontally and 
shall be separated by undisturbed or compacted earth. 

10.6.2 The water-service pipe may be placed in the same 
trench with the building drain and building sewer provided the 
following conditions are met: 

The bottom of the water-service pipe, at all points, shall 
be at least 12 inches above the top of the sewer line at its 
highest point. 

The water-service pipe shall be placed on a solid shelf 
excavated at one side of the common trench. 

The number of joints in the service pipe shall be kept to a 
minimum. 

The materials and joints of sewer and water-service pipe 
shall be installed in such manner and shall possess the neces- 
sary strength and durability to prevent the escape of solids, 
liquids, and gases, therefrom, under all known adverse con- 
ditions such as corrosion, strains due to temperature changes, 
settlement, vibrations and superimposed loads. 

10. 6.3 Stop -and-Waste Valve Combination. Combination 
stop-and-waste valves and cocks shall not be installed in an 
underground service pipe, 

75 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



10.6.4 Private .Water Supply. No private water supply 
shall be interconnected with any public water supply without 
the specific approval of the Department of Health. 

10.7 WATER PUMPING AND STORAGE EQUIPMENT 

10.7.1 Pumps and Other Appliances. Water pumps, tanks, 
filters, softeners, and all other appliances and devices shall 
be protected against contamination. 

10.7.2 Water-Supply Tanks. Potable-water-supply tanks 
shall be properly covered to prevent the entrance of foreign 
material or insects into the water supply. Soil or waste lines 
shall not pass directly over such tanks. 

10.7.3 Pressure Tanks, Boilers, and Relief Valves. The 

drains from pressure tanks, boilers, relief valves and similar 
equipment shall be connected to the drainage system through 
an indirect waste. 

10.7.4 Cleaning, Painting, Repairing Water Tanks. A pot- 
able-water-supply tank used for domestic purposes shall not 
be lined, painted, or repaired with any material which will af- 
fect either the taste or the potability of the water supply when 
the tank is returned to service. Tanks shall be disconnected 
from the system during such operations, to prevent any foreign 
fluid or substance from entering the distribution piping. 

10.8 WATER-SUPPLY TANKS (HOUSE-SUCTION BOOSTER). 

10.8.1 When Required. When the water pressure from the 
city mains during flow is insufficient to supply all fixtures 
freely and continuously, the rate of supply shall be supple- 
mented by a gravity house tank or booster system. 

10.8.2 Support. All water-supply tanks shall be supported 
in accordance with the building code or other regulations which 
apply. 

IO18.3 Overflow for Water-Supply Tanks. Overflow pipes 
for gravity tanks shall discharge above and within 6 inches of 
a roof or catch basin, or they shall discharge over an open, 
water-supplied sink. Adequate overflow pipes properly screened 
against the entrance of insects and vermin shall be provided. 

76 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



10.8.4 Tank Supply. The water-supply inlet within the 
tank shall be at an elevation not less than is required for an 
air gap in an open tank with overflow, but in no case shall the 
elevation be less than 4 inches above the overflow. (See 
Appendix D). 

10.8.5 Drains. Water-supply tanks shall be provided with 
valved drain lines located at their lowest point and discharged 
as an indirect waste or as required for overflow pipes in para- 
graph 10.4.3. 

10.8.6 Size of Overflow. Overflow drains for water supply 
tanks shall not be less than the following: 

Drain pipe Tank Capacity Drain pipe Tank Capacity 

(inches) (gallons) (inches) (gallons) 

1 Up to 750 iVi 3,001 to 5,000 

iVi 751 to 1,500 3 5,001 to 7,500 

2 1,501 to 3,000 4 Over 7,500 

Each drain line ^shall be equipped with a quick opening valve 
of the same diameter as the pipe. 



m 



10.8.7 Gravity and Suction Tanks. Tanks used for do- 
estic water supply, combined supply to fire standpipes and 

domestic water system, or to supply standpipes for fire-fight- 
ing equipment only, shall be equipped with tight covers which 
are vermin and rodent proof. Such tanks shall be vented with 
a return bend vent pipe having an area not less than one half 
the area of the down feed riser and the vent opening shall be 
covered with a metallic screen of not less than one hundred 
(100) mesh. 

10.8.8 Pressure Tanks. Pressure tanks used for supply- 
ing water to the domestic water distribution system, combined 
supply X.O fire standpipes and domestic water system, or to 
supply standpipes for fire equipment only, shall be equipped 
with an acceptable vacuum breaking device located on the top 
of the tank. The air inlet of this device shall be covered with 
a metallic screen of not less than one hundred (IOC) mesh. 

10.9 DISINFECTION OF POTABLE WATER 
SYSTEM PIPING 

10.9.1 The Administrative Authority having jurisdiction 
may require that a potable-water system or any parr thereof 



77 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



installed or repaired be disinfected in accordance with one 
of the following methods before it is placed in operation. 

10.9.2 The system, or part thereof, shall be filled with 
a solution containing 50 parts per million of available chlorine 
and allowed to stand 6 hours before flushing and returning to 
service. 

10.9.3 The system, or part thereof, shall be filled with a 
solution containing 100 parts per million of available chlorine 
and allowed to stand 2 hours before flushing and returning to 
service. 

10.9.4 In the case of a potable-water storage tank where 
it is not possible to disinfect as provided in paragraphs 10.9.2 
and 10.9.3 the entire interior of the tank shall be swabbed with 
a solution containing 200parts permillion of available chlorine 
and the solution allowed to stand 2 hours before flushing and 
returning to service. 

10.9.5 In the case of potable-water filters or similar de- 
vices, the dosage shall be determined by the Administrative 
Authority. 

10.10 WATER-DISTRIBUTION PIPE, 
TUBING AND FITTINGS 

10.10.1 Materials for water-distributing pipes and tubing 
shall be brass, copper, lead, cast iron, wrought iron, open- 
hearth iron, or steel, with appropriate approved fittings. All 
threaded ferrous pipe and fittings shall be galvanized (zinc- 
coated) or cement lined. When used underground in corrosive 
soil, all ferrous pipe and fittings shall be coal-tar enamel 
coated and the threaded joints shall be coated and wrapped 
after installation, (See Chapter 3 for Standards.) 

10.11 ALLOWANCE FOR CHARACTER OF WATER 

10.11.1 Selection of Materials. When selecting the material 
and size for water-supply pipe, tubing, or fittings, due con- 
sideration shall be given to the action of the water on the in- 
terior and of the soil, fill or other material on the exterior of 
the pipe. No material that would produce toxic conditions in 
a potable-water supply system shall be used for piping, tubing, 
or fittings. 

10.11.2 Used Piping. No piping material that has been 

78 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 

used for other than a potable-water supply system shall be re- 
used in the potable water-supply system. 

10.12 WATER SUPPLY CONTROL 

10.12.1 Water Supply. Control. A main shut-off valve on 
the water-service pipe shall be provided near the curb and, 
also, an accessible shut-off valve with a drip valve shall be 
provided inside near the entrance of the water-service pipe 
into the building. 

10.12.2 Tank Controls. Supply lines taken from pressure 
or gravity tanks shall be valved at or near their source. 

10.12.3 Separate Controls for Each Family Unit. In two- 
family or multiple dwellings, each family unit shall be con- 
trolled by an arrangement of shut-off valves which permit each 
group of fixtures or the individual fixtures to be shut off 
without interference with the water supply to any other family 
unit or portion of the building. 

10.12.4 Group Fixtures. A group of fixtures means two or 
more fixtures adjacent or near each other. In a one-family 
house one or two bathrooms adjacent or one over the other 
may be considered a group. 

10.12.5 Buildings Other Than Dwellings. In all buildings 
other than dwellings shut-off valves shall be installed, which 
permit the water supply to all equipment in each separate room 
to be shut off without interference with the water supply to 
any other room or portion of the building. 

10.12.6 Water Heating Equipment. A shut-off valve shall 
be provided in the cold-water branch line to each water-storage 
tank or each water heater. 

10.12.7 Shut -Off Valve at Meter. The shut-off valve at 
the discharge side of the water meter shall be not less in 
size than the. size of the building water service, and shall be 
of the gate type or ground key stop, 

10.13 WATER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION 

10.13.1 Water-Service Pipe. The water-service pipe from 
the street main to the water-distribution system for the build- 
ing shall be of sufficient size to furnish an adequate flow of 
water to meet the requirements of the building at peak demand, 

79 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



and in no case shall be less than 3/4 inch nominal diameter. 
If flushometers or other devices requiring a high rate of 
water flow are used, the water-service pipe shall be designed 
to supply this flow. 

10.13.2 Demand Load. The demand load in the building 
water-supply system shall be based on the number and kind 
of fixtures installed and the probable simultaneous* use of 
these fixtures. 

10.14 PROCEDURE IN SIZING THE WATER 

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM OF A BUILDING 

10.14.1 The sizing of the water distribution system shall 
conform to good engineering practice. Methods used to deter- 
mine pipe sizes shall be acceptable to the Administrative 
Authority. (See Appendix D for guidance in the design of 
water-supply systems.) 



10.14.2 Size of Fixture -Supply. The minimum size of a 
fixture-supply pipe shall be as follows: 

Type of Fixture Pipe Size Type of Fixture Pipe Size 

or Device (inches) or Device (inches) 

B^th tubs 1/2 Shower (single head) . 1/2 

Combination sink and .Sinks (service, slop). 1/2 

"ay- 1/2 Sinks flushing rim. . . 3/4 

Drinking fountain. ... 3/8 Urinal (flush tank). . . 1/2 

Dishwasher (domestic) 1/2 Urinal (direct flush 

Kitchen sink, valve 3/4 

residential 1/2 Water closet (tank 

Kitchen sink, type) 3/8 

commercial 3/4 Water closet (flush 

Lavatory 3/8 valve type) 1 

Laundry tray, 1, 2 or Hose bibbs 1/2 

3 compartments. ... 1/2 Wall hydrant 1/2 

For fixtures not listed, the minimum supply branch may be 
made the same as for a comparable fixture. 

10.14.3 Minimum Pressure. Minimum, fairly constant, 
service pressure, at the point of outlet discharge shall be not 
less than 8 psi for all fixtures except for direct flush-valves, 
for which it shall be not less than 15 psi, and except where 
special equipment is used requiring higher pressure. In de- 
termining the minimum pressure, allowance shall be made for 

80 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



the pressure drop due to friction loss in the piping system 
during maximum demand periods as well as head, meter, and 
other losses in the system. 

10.14.4 Auxiliary Pressure. Supplementary Tank. If the 

residual pressure in the system is below the minimum allow- 
able at the highest water outlet when the flow in the system 
is at peak demand, an automatically controlled pressure tank 
or gravity tank shall be installed, of sufficient capacity to 
supply sections of the building installation which are too 
high to be supplied directly from the public water main. 

10.14.5 Low Pressure Cut-Off. When a booster pump is 
used on an auxiliary pressure system and the possibility exists 
that a pressure of 5 psi or less may occur on the suction side 
of the pump, there shall be installed a low-pressure cut-off on 
the booster pump to prevent the creation of negative pressures 
on the suction side of the water system. Other arrangements 
may be used if found adequate and if approved as such by the 
Administrative Authority. 

10.14.6 Variable Street Pressures. When the street main 
has a wide fluctuation in pressure during the day, the water 
distribution system shall be designed for minimum pressure 
available. 

10.14.7 Hazard and Noise. Where water pressures are ex- 
cessive, air chambers or other approved mechanical devices 
shall be provided to reduce water hammer or line noises to 
such an extent that no pressure hazard to the piping system 
will exist. 



10.15 HOT -WATER DISTRIBUTION 

10.15.1 Hot-Water Distribution Piping. The sizing of the 
hot-water distribution piping shall conform to good engineer- 
ing practice (See paragraph 10.14.) 

10.16 SAFETY DEVICES 

10.16.1 Pressure-Relief Valve. Pressure-relief valves shall 
be installed for all equipment used for heating or storage of 
hot water. The rate of discharge of such a valve shall limit 
the pressure rise for any given heat input to 10 percent of the 
pressure at which the valve is set to open. 

81 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



10.16.2 Temperature Relief Valves or Energy Shut-off De- 
vices. Temperature relief valves or energy shut-off devices 
shall be installed for equipment used for the heating or storage 
of hot water. Each temperature relief valve shall be rated as 
to its BTU capacity. At 210 deg F, it shall be capable of dis- 
charging sufficient hot water to prevent any further rise in 
temperature. As an alternative to the temperature relief valve, 
and in lieu thereof, an energy shut-off device may be used, 
which will cut off the supply of heat energy to the water tank 
before the temperature of the water in the tank exceeds 210 
deg F. 

10.16.3 Approvals. Combination pressure and temperature 
relief valves, separate pressure and temperature relief valves, 
or energy shut-off devices, which have been tested and approv- 
ed by, or meet the specification requirements of, the American 
Gas Association, the Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc., or other 
recognized approval authorities, shall be considered acceptable. 

10.16.4 Relief- Valve Location. Temperature-relief valves 
shall be so located in the tank as to be actuated by the water 
in the top one-eighth of the tank served and in no case more 
than 3 inches away from such tank. Pressure-relief valves may 
be located adjacent to the equipment they serve. There shall 
be no check valve or shut-off valve between a relief valve 
and the heater or tank for which it is installed. 

10.16.5 Relief Outlet Wastes. The outlet of a pressure, 
temperature, or other relief valve shall not be connected to the 
drainage system as a direct waste. 

10.16.6 Pressure Marking of Storage Tank. Any storage 
tank hereafter installed for domestic hot water shall have 
clearly and indelibly stamped in the metal, or so marked upon 
a plate welded thereto, or otherwise permanently attached, the 
maximum allowable working pressure. Such markings shall be 
in an accessible position outside of the tank so as to make 
inspection or reinspection readily possible. All storage tanks 
for domestic hot water shall meet the applicable ASME stand- 
ards. 

10.17 MISCELLANEOUS 

10.17.1 Drain Cock. All storage tanks shall be equipped 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



with adequate drain cocks. 

10.17.2 Line Valves. Valves in the water-supply distri- 
bution system, except those immediately controlling one fix- 
ture supply, when fully opened shall have a cross-sectional 
area of the smallest orifice or opening through which the water 
flows at least equal to the cross-sectional area of the nominal 
size of the pipe in which the valve is installed. 

10.17.3 Water Used for Processing. Water used for cooling 
of equipment or similar purposes shall not be returned to the 
potable-water distributing system. When discharged to the 
building drainage system, the waste water shall be discharged 
through an indirect waste pipe or air gap. 



83 



Chapter II 
DRAINAGE SYSTEM 

11.1 MATERIALS 

11.1.1 General. Pipe, tubing, and fittings for drainage 
systems shall comply with the provisions in Chapter 3. 

11.1.2 Above-Grouod Piping Within Buildings. Soil and 
waste piping for a drainage system within a building shall be 
of cast-iron, galvanized wrought iron, galvanized q>en-hearth 
iron, galvanized steel, lead, brass, or copper pipe, or copper 
Cube. 

11.1.3 Underground Piping Within Buildings. All drains 
within buildings, when underground, shall be of cast-iron soil 
pipe. For buildings under two stories in height, the pipe may 
be service weight. 

For buildings twa. stories or more in height, the pipe shall 
be of extra-heavy weight. 

The following materials may be used underground when ap- 
proved by the Administrative Authority: galvanized steel or 
galvanized ferrous alloy, lead, or copper pipe, or copper tub- 
ing. Where threaded joints are approved for use underground, 
they shall be coated and wrapped after installation. 

11.1.4 Fittings. Fittings on the drainage system shall 
conform to the type of piping used. Fittings on screwed pipe 
shall be of the recessed drainage type. (See Section 2.4.) 

11.2 BUILDING SEWER 

11.2.1 Separate Trenches. The building sewer, when in- 
stalled in a separate trench from the water-service pipe, shall 
be cast-iron sewer pipe, vitrified-clay sewer pipe, concrete 
sewer pipe, bituminized-fiber sewer pipe, or asbestos-cement 
sewer pipe. Joints shall be watertight and rootproof. 

11.2.2 One Trench. The building sewer, when installed in 
the same trench with the water-service pipe shall be con- 
structed of durable materials which are corrosion-resistant 
and shall be so installed as to remain watertight and be root- 
proof. The building sewer shall be tested with a 10-foot head 
of water or equivalent and found to be tight. 

84 



DRAINAGE SYSTEM 



11.2.3 Sewer in Filled Ground. A building sewer or build- 
ing drain installed in filled or unstable ground shall be of 
cast-iron pipe, except that nonmetallic drains may be laid 
upon an approved concrete pad if installed in accordance with 
paragraph 11.2.1. 

11.2.4 Sanitary and Storm Sewers. Where separate sys- 
tems of sanitary drainage and storm drainage are installed in 
the same property, the sanitary and storm building sewers or 
drains may be laid side by side in one trench. 

11.2.5 Old House Sewers and Drains. Old house sewers 
and house drains may be used in connection with new build- 
ing or new plumbing and drainage work only when they are 
found, on examination and test, to conform in all respects to 
the requirements governing new house sewers, and the Ad- 
ministrative Authority shall notify the owner to make the 
changes necessary to conform to this Code. 

11.3 DRAINAGE PIPING INSTALLATION 

11.3.1 Horizontal Drainage Piping. Horizontal drainage 
piping shall be installed at a uniform slope but at slopes not 
less than permitted in paragraphs 11.3.2, 11.3.3, and 11.3.4. 

11.3.2 Small Piping. Horizontal drainage piping of 3-inch 
diameter and less shall be installed with a fall of not less 
than 1/4 inch per foot. 

11.3.3 Large Piping. Horizontal drainage piping larger 
than 3-inch diameter shall be installed with a fall of not less 
than 1/8 inch per foot. 

11.3.4 Minimum Velocity. Where conditions do not permit 
building drains and sewers to be laid with a fall as great as 
that specified, then a lesser slope may be permitted provided 
the computed velocity will not be less than 2 fps. 

11.4 FIXTURE UNITS 

11.4.1 Values for Fixtures. Fixture-unit values as given 
in Table 11.4.2 designate the relative load weight of different 
kinds of fixtures which shall be employed in estimating the 
total load carried by a soil waste pipe and shall be used in 
connection with the cables of sizes for soil, waste, and drain 
pipes for which the permissible load is given in terms of fix- 
ture units. 

85 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



Table n.4.2 FIXTURE UNITS PER FIXTURE OR GROUP 






Fixture-Unit 


Value 


Minimum Size 


Fixture Type 








of Trap^ 






as 


Load Factors 


Inches 




1 bathroom group consisting 


Tank 


water cl 


oset 6 






of water closet, lavatory and 


Flush 


-valve water j 






bathtub or shower stall 


clo 


set 


8 






Bathtub' (with or without over- 




2 






IM 


head shower) 












Bathtub' 




3 
3 
3 
4 






2 


Bidet 

Combination sink-and-tray 






Nominal 


1^2 
1^/2 


Combination sink-and-tray with 
food-disposal unit 






Separate 
traps 


Dental unit or cuspidor 




1 






1% 


Dental lavatory 




1 






1% 


Drinking fountain 




Vz 






1 


Dishwasher domestic 




2 






1/2 


Floor drains^ 




1 






2 


Kitchen sink, domestic 




2 






IM 


Kitchen sink, domestic, with 












food waste grinder 




3 






IK2 


Lavatory* 




1 




Small P.O. 


I'A 


Lavatory** 




•2 




Large P.O. 


Wz 


Lavatory, barber, beauty parlor 




2 






1/2 


Lavatory, surgeon's 




2 






iVi 


Laundry tray (1 or 2 compartments) 




2 






Wi 


Shower stall, domestic 




2 






2 


Showers (group) per head 




3 








Sinks 












Surgeon's 




3 






1^2 


Flushing rim (with valve) 




8 






3 


Service (Trap standard) 




3 






3 


Service (P trap) 




2 






2 


Pot, scullery, etc. 




4 






IK2 


Urinal, |>«destal, syphon 












jet, blowout 




8 




Nominal 


3 


Urinal, wall lip 




4 






l'/2 


Urinal stall, washout 




4 






2 


Urinal trough' (each 2-ft section) 




2 






1/2 


Wash sink' (circular or multiple). 












each set of faucets 




2 




Nominal 


1^/2 


Water closet, tank-operated 




4 




Nominal 


3 


Water closet, valve-operated 




8 






3 



A shower head over a bathtub does not increase the fixture value. 

See Pars. 11.4.3 and 11.4.4 for method of computing unit value of fixtures not 
listed in Table 11.4.2 or for rating of devices with interr^ittent flows. 

Size of floor drain shall be determined by the area of surface water to be drained. 
* Lavatories with iVi or I'/j inch trap have the same load value; larger P.O. plugs 
have greater flow rate. 

86 



DRAINAGE SYSTEM 



11.4.3 Fixtures not listed in Table 11.4.2 shall be esti- 
mated in accordance with Table 11.4.3. 





Table 


11 


.4.3 




Fixture drain 


or trap size 






Fixture-u 


1 1/4 inches 

1 1/2 inches 

2 inches 

2 1/2 inches 

3 inches 

4 inches 


and smaller 






1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 



11.4.4 Values for Continuous Flow. For a continuous or 
semicontinuous flow into a drainage system, such as from a 
pump, pump ejector, air-conditioning equipment, or similar de- 
vice, two fixture units shall be allowed for each gallon-per- 
minute of flow. 



11.5 DETERMINATION OF SIZES FOR 
THE DRAINAGE SYSTEM 

11.5.1 Maximum FixturC'Unit Load. The maximum number of 
fixture units that may be connected to a given size of building 
sewer, building drain, horizontal branch, or vertical soil or 
waste stack is given inTables 11.5.2 and 11.5.3. 



87 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



11.5.2 



Table 11^.2 BUILDING DRAINS AND SEWERS 





Maximum Number of Fixture Units That May Be Connected 
to Any Portion' of the Building Drain or the Building Sewer 


Diameter 
of Pipe 


Fall per Foot 




1/16-Inch 


1/8-Inch 


1/4-Inch 


1/2-Inch 


Inches 

2 

IV2 

3 - 

4 

5 

6 

8 
10 
12 
15 


1,400 
2,500 
3,900 
7,000 


. ' 20' 

180 

390 

700- 

1,600 

2,900 

4,600 

8,300 


21 

24 

27' 

216 

480 

840 

1,920 

3,500 

5,600 

10,000 


26 

M' 

250 
575 
1,000 
2,300 
4,200 
6,700 
12,000 



1 [ncludes branches of the building drain. 

2 Not over two water closets. 



88 



DRAINAGE SYSTEM 



11.5.3 



Table 11.5.3 HORIZONTAL FIXTURE 
BRANCHES AND STACKS 





Maximum Numberof Fixture Units That May Be Connected To: 


Diameter 
of 


Any 

Horizontal' 

Fixture 


One Stack of 


More Than 


3 Stories in Height 


Pipe 


Height or 3 


Total for 


Total at One Story 




Branch 


Intervals 


Stack 


or Branch Interval 


Inches 










IVa 


1 


2 


2 


1 


Wi 


3 


4 


8 


2 


2 


6 


10 


24 


6 


2' A 


12 


20 


42 


9 


3 - 


20^ 


30^ 


60^ 


16^ 


4 


160 


240 


500 


■ '90 


5 


360 


540 


1,100 


200 


6 


620 


960 


1,900 


350 


8 


1,400 * 


2,200 


3,600 


600 


10 


2,500 


3,800 


5,600 


1,000 


12 


3,900 


6,000 


8,400 


1,500 


15 


7,000 










Does not include branches of the building drain. 
Not over two water closets. 
Not over six water closets. 



11.5.4 Minimum Size of Soil and Waste Stacks. No soil or 
waste stack shall be smaller than the largest horizontal branch 
connected thereto except that a 4 x 3 W.C. connection shall 
not be considered as a reduction in pipe size. 

11.5.5 Minimum Size of Stack- Vent or Vent Stack. Any 
structure on which a building drain is installed shall have at 
least one stack-vent or vent stack carried full size through 
the roof not less than 3 inches in diameter or the size of the 
building drain, whichever is the lesser. 

11.5.6 Future Fixtures. When provision is made for the 
future installation of fixtures, those provided for shall be con- 
sidered in determining the required sizes of drain pipes. Con- 
struction to provide for such future installation shall be term- 
inated with a plugged fitting or fittings at the stack so as to 
form no dead end. 



89 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



11.5.7 Underground Drainage Piping. N6 portion of the 
drainage system installed underground or below a basement or 
cellar shall be less than 2 inches in diameter. 



11.6 OFFSETS ON DRAINAGE PIPING 

11.6.1 Offsets of 45 Deg or Less. An offset in a vertical 
stack, with a change of direction of 45 deg or less from the 
vertical, may be sized as a straight vertical stack. In case a 
horizontal branch connects to the stack within 2 feet above or 
below the offset, a relief vent shall be installed in accordance 
with paragraph 12.18.3. 

11.6.2 Waste Stacks Serving Kitchen Sinks. In a one- or 
two-family dwelling only in which the waste stack or vent re- 
ceives the discharge of a kitchen-type sink and also serves 
as a vent for fixtures connected to the horizontal portion of 
the branch served by the waste stack, the minimum size of the 
waste stack up to the highest sink branch connection shall be 
2 inches in diameter. Above that point the size of the stack 
shall be governed by the total number of fixture units vented 
by the stack. 

11.6.3 Above Highest Branch. An offset above the high- 
est horizontal branch is an offset in the stack-vent ahd shall 
be considered only as it affects the developed length of the 
vent. 

11.6.4 Below Lowest Branch. In the case of an offset in a 
soil or waste stack below the lowest horizontal branch, no 
change in diameter of the stack because of the offset shall be 
required if it is made at an angle of not greater than 45 deg. 
If such an offset is made at an angle greater than 45 deg , the 
required diameter of the offset and the stack below it shall be 
determined as for a building drain (Table 11.5.2). 

11.6.5 Offsets of More Than 45 Deg. A stack with an off- 
set of more than 45 deg from the vertical shall be sized as 
follows: 

The portion of the stack above the offset shall be sized as 
for a regular stack based on the total number of fixtiire units 
above the offset. 

The offset shall be sized as for a building drain. (Table 
11.5.2, Column 5). 

90 



DRAINAGE SYSTEM 

The portion of the stack- below the offset shall be sized as 
for the offset or based on the total number of fixture units on 
the entire stack, whichever is the larger. (See Table 11.5.3) 
Column 4.) 

A relief vent for the offset shall be installed as provided in 
Chapter 12 and in no case shall the horizontal branch connect 
to the stack with 2 feet above or below the offset. 

11.7 SUMPS AND EJECTORS 

11.7.1 Building Drains Below Sewer. Building drains 
which cannot be discharged to the sewer by gravity flow shall 
be discharged into a tightly covered and vented sump from 
which the liquid shall be lifted and discharged into the build- 
ing gravity drainage system by automatic pumping equipment 
or by any equally efficient method approved by the Admini- 
strative Authority. 

11.7.2 Storage Period. The storage of drainage in a sump 
or ejector shall not exceed a period of 12 hours. 

11.7.3 Design. Sump and pumping equipment shall be so 
designed as to discharge all contents accumulated in the sump 
during the cycle of emptying operation. 

11.7.4 Venting. The system of drainage piping below the 
sewer level shall be installed and vented, in a manner similar 
to that of the gravity system. 

11.7.5 Duplex Equipment. Sumps receiving the discharge 
of more than six water closets shall be provided with duplex 
pumping equipment.' 

11.7.6 Vent Sizes. Building sump vents shall be sized 
in accordance with table 12.21.5 but shall in no case be sized 
less than 1 1/2 inches. 

11.7.7 Separate Vents. Vents from pneumatic ejectors or 
similar equipment shall be carried separately to the open air 
as a vent terminal. 

11.7.8 Connections. No direct connection of a steam 
exhaust, blowoff, or drip pipe shall be made with the building 
drainage system. Waste water when discharged into the build- 
ing drainage system shall be at a temperature not higher than 
l40 F. When higher temperature exists, proper cooling methods 
shall be provided. 

91 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



11.8 FLOOR DRAINS 

11.8.1 Accessibility. Floor drains shall connect into a 
trap so constructed that it can be readily cleaned and of a 
size to serve efficiently the purpose for which it is intended. 
The drain inlet shall be so located that it is, at all times, in 

full view, 

11.8.2 Connection. Floor drains subject to backflow 
shall not be directly connected to the drainage system. 

11.8.3 Provision for Evaporation. Floor-drain trap seals 
subject to evaporation shall be of the deep-seal type or shall 
be fed from an approved plumbing fixture or by means of an 
approved automatic priming device designed and approved for 
that purpose. 

11.8.4 Size. Floor-drain traps and drains, installed be- 
low a basement floor or underground, shall be not less than 2 
inches in diameter. 

11.8.5 Bell Traps. Dell traps are prohibited. 

11.9 FROST PROTECTION 

11.9.1 No soil or waste pipes shall be installed or per- 
mitted outside of a building, or concealed in outside walls or 
in any place where they may be subjected to freezing temper- 
atures, unless adequate provision is made to protect them from 
frost. 



92 



Chapter 12 
VENTS AND VENTING 



12.1 MATERIALS 

12.1.1 Vents. Pipe, tubing, and fittings for the vent pip- 
ing system shall comply with the provisions in Chapter 3. 

12.1.2 Specific Type. Standards given inTable 3.5 apply 
to the specific materials approved for use and as indicated in 
the various paragraphs in this chapter as they apply to the 
venting system. 

12.1.3 Pipiiig' Vent piping shall be of cast-iron, galvan- 
ized wrought iron, galvanized steel, and ferrous alloys, lead, 
brass, or copper pipe, or copper tube. 

12.1.4 Underground. Vent piping placed underground shall 
be cast-iron soil pipe; provided that other materials may be 
used for underground vents when found adequate and installed 
as directed by the Administrative Authority. ''Vhere threaded 
joints are approved for use underground, they shall be coated 
and wrapped after installation and test. 

12.1.5 Fittings. Fittings shall conform to the type of 
pipe used in the vent system as required by paragraphs 12.1.2 
and 12.1.3. 

12.1.6 Acid System. Vent piping on acid-waste systems 
shall conform to that required for acid-waste pipe, except as 
may be found adequate by the Administrative Authority. 

12.1.7 Other Materials. Nothing in this section shall be 
deemed to preclude the use of other materials of equal or 
better quality when approved as such by the Administrative 
Authority. 

12.2 PROTECTION OF TRAP SEALS 

12.2.1 Traps Protected. The protection of trap seals from 
siphonage or back pressure shall be accomplished by the ap- 
propriate use of soil or waste stacks, vents, revents, back 
vents, loop vents, circuit or continuous vents, or combinations 

93 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



thereof, installed in accordance with the requirements of this 
chapter. 

12.3 VENT STACKS 

12.3.1 Installation. A vent stack or a main vent shall be 
installed with a soil or waste stack whenever back vents, re- 
lief vents, or other branch vents are required in two or more 
branch intervals. 

12.3.2 TerminaL The vent stack shall terminate indepen- 
dently above the roof of the building or shall be connected 
with the extension of the soil or waste stack (stack-vent) at 
least 6 inches above the flood-level rim of the highest fixture. 

12.3.3 Main Stack. Every building in which plumbing is 
installed shall have at least one main stack, which shall run 
undiminished in size and as directly as possible, from the 
building drain through to the open air above the roof. 

12.4 VENT TERMINALS 

12.4.1 Roof Extension. Extensions of vent pipes through 
a roof shall be terminated at least 6 inches above it. 

12.4.2 Roof Garden. Where a roof is to be used for any 
purpose other than weather protection, the vent extensions 
shall be run at least 5 feet above the roof. 

12.4.3 Flashings. Each vent terminal shall be made 
watertight with the roof by proper flashing. 

12.4.4 Flag Poling. Vent terminals shall not be used for 
the purpose of flag poling, TV aerials, or similar purposes, 
except when the piping has been anchored to the construction 

and approved as safe by the Administrative Authority. 

12.4.5 Location of Vent Terminal. No vent terminal from a 
drainage system shall be directly beneath any door, window, 
or other ventilating opening of the building or of an adjacent 
building nor shall any such vent terminal be within 10 feet 
horizontally of such an opening unless it is at least 2 feet 
above the top of such opening. 

12„4.6 Extensions Through W5JI. Vent terminals extend- 
ing through a wall, when approved by the Administrative Au- 
thority, shall be at least 10 feet horizontally from any lot line. 
They shall be turned to provide an opening downward. They 

94 



VENTS AND VENTING 



shall be effectively screened and shall meet the requirements 
of paragraph 12.4.5. Vent terminals shall not terminate under 
the overhang of the building. 

12.4.7 Extensions Outside Building. No soil, waste, or 
vent pipe extension shall be run, or placed on the outside of 
a wall of any new building, but shall be carried up inside the 
building except that in those localities where the temperature 
does not drop below 32 deg F, the Administrative Authority 
may approve the installation outside the building. 

12.5 FROST CLOSURE 

12.5.1 Vent Terminal. Where there is a possibility of 
frost closure, the vent extension through a roof shall be at 
least 3 inches in diameter. When it is found necessary to in- 
crease the size of the vent terminal, the change in diameter 
shall be made inside the building. 

12.5.2 Increasers. Change in diameter of vent terminals 
shall be made by use of a long increaser at least 1 foot below 
the roof. 

12.6 VENT GRADES AND CONNECTIONS 

1206.1 Grade. All vent and branch-vent pipes shall be so 
graded and connected as to drip back to the soil or waste pipe 
by gravity. 

12.6.2 Vertical Rise. Where vent pipes connect to a hori- 
zontal soil or waste pipe, the vent shall be taken off above the 
center line of the soil pipe, and the vent pipe shall rise verti- 
cally, or at an angle not more than 45 deg from the vertical, 
to a point at least 6 inches above the flood-level rim of the 
fixture it is venting before offsetting horizontally or before 
connecting to the branch vent, 

12.6.3 Height Above Fixtures. A connection between a 
vent pipe and a vent stack or stack-vent shall be made at least 
6 inches above the flood-level rim of the highest fixture served 
by the vent. Horizontal vent pipes forrriing branch vents, relief 
vents, or loop vents shall be at least 6 inches above the flood- 
level rim of the highest fixture served. 

12.6.4 Side-Inlet. Side-inlet closet bends are permitted 
only in cases where the fixture connecting thereto is vented 

95 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 

and in no case shall the inlet be used to vent a bathroom 
group without being washed by a fixture. 

12.7 BARS AND SODA-FOUNTAIN SINKS 

12.7.1 Bar and Fountain-Sink Traps. Traps serving sinks 
which are part of the equipment of bars, soda fountains, and 
counters need not be vented when the location and construction 
of such bars, soda fountains, and counters are such as to 
make it impossible so to do. When such conditions exist, 
such sinks shall discharge into a floor sink or hopper which 
is properly trapped and vented. 

12.7.2 Sumps. Sinks or sumps, receiving indirect waste, 
shall be located in a properly lighted and ventilated space. 

12.8 FIXTURES BACK-TO-BACK 

12.8.1 Distance. Two fixtures set back-to-back, within 
the distance allowed between a trap and its vent, may be 
served with one continuous soil or waste-vent pipe, provided 
that each fixture wastes separately into an approved double 
fitting having inlet openings at the same level. (See para- 
graph 12.10.2.) 

12.9 FIXTURE VENTS 

12.9.1 Distance of Trap from Vent. Each fixture trap shall 
have a protecting vent so located that the slope and the de- 
veloped length in the fixture drain from the trap weir to the 
vent fitting are within the requirements set forth in Table 
12.9.3. 

12.9.2 Trap-Seal Protection. The plumbing system shall 
be provided with a system of vent piping which will permit 
the admission or emission of air so that under normal and in- 
tended use the seal of any fixture trap shall not be subjected 
to a pressure differential of more than 1 inch of water. 

12.9.3 

Table 12.9.3 DISTANCE OF FIXTURE TRAP FROM VENT 



Size of fixture drain 
Inches 



Distance trap to vent 



1 1/4 
1 1/2 
2 
3 



2 ft. 


6 in. 


3 ft 


6 in. 


5 ft 


in. 


6 ft 


in. 


ft 


in. 



96 



VENTS AND VENTING 

12.9.4 Trap Dip. The vent pipe opening from a soil or 
waste pipe, except for water closets and similar fixtures, shall 
not be below the top weir of the trap. 

12.9.5 Crown Vent. No back vent shall be installed with- 
in two pipe diameters of the trap weir. 

12.10 COMMON VENT 

12.10.1 Individiial Vent. An individual vent, installed 
vertically, may be used as a common vent for two fixture traps 
when both fixture drains connect with a vertical drain at the 
same level. 

12.10.2 Common Vent. A common vent may be used for 
two fixtures set on the same floor level but connecting at dif- 
ferent levels in the stack, provided the vertical drain is one 
pipe diameter larger than the upper fixture drain but in no case 
smaller than the lower fixture drain, whichever is the larger 
and that both drains conform to Table 12.9.3. 

12.11 VENTS FOR FIXTURE TRAP BELOW TRAP DIP 

12.11.1 Hydraulic Gradient. Fixture drains shall be vented 
within the hydraulic gradient between the trap outlet and vent 
connection, but in no case shall the unvented drain exceed the 
distance provided for in table 12.9.3. 

12.11.2 Different Levels. If any stack has fixtures enter- 
ing at different levels, the fixtures other than the fixture 
entering at the highest level shall be vented, except as may 
be permitted in other sections of this chapter. 

12.12 WET VENTING 

12.12,1 Single Bathroom Groups. A single bathroom group 
of fixtures may be installed with the drain from a back-vented 
lavatory, kitchen sink, or combination fixture serving as a 
wet vent for a bathtub or shower stall and for the water closet, 
provided that: 

(a) Not more than one fixture unit is drained into a 1 1/2- 
inch diameter wet vent or not more than four fixture units 
drain into a 2-inch diameter wet vent. 

(b) The horizontal branch connects to the stack at the same 
level as the water-closet drain or below the water-closet drain 



97 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



when installed on the top floor, 
water-closet bend. 



It may also connect to the 



12.12.2 Double Bath. Bathroom groups back-to-back on 
top floor consisting of two lavatories and two bathtubs or 
shower stalls may be installed on the same horizontal branch 
with a common vent for the lavatories and with no back vent 
for the bathtubs or shower stalls and for the water closets, 
provided the wet vent is 2 inches in diameter, and the length 
of the fixture drain conforms to Table 12.9.3> 

12.12.3 Multistory Bathroom Groups. On the lower floors 
of* a multistory building, the waste pipe from one or two lava- 
tories may be used as a wet vent for one or two bathtubs or 
showers provided that: 

(a) The wet vent and its extension to the vent stack is 2 
inches in diameter. 

(b) Each water closet below the top floor is individually 
back vented. 

(c) The vent stack is sized as given in Table 12.1 2. 3^« 

Table 12.12.3c SIZE OF VENT STACKS 



Number of wet-vented fixtures 


Diameter of vent stacks 
Inches 


1 or 2 bathtubs or showers 

3 to 5 bathtubs or showers 

6 to 9 bathtubs or showers 

10 to 16 bathtubs or showers 


2 

2 1/2 

3 

4 



12.12.4 Exception. In multistory bathroom groups, wet 
vented in accordance with paragraph 12.12.3, the water closets 
below the top floor need not be individually vented if the 2- 
inch waste connects directly into the water-closet bend at a 
45 deg angle to the horizontal portion of the bend in the 
direction of flow. 

12.13 STACK VENTING 

12.13.1 One-Bathroom Group. Except as indicated in para- 
graph 12.13.2, a group of fixtures, consisting of one bathroom 
group and a kitchen sink or combination fixture, may be in- 
stalled without individual fixture vents, in a one-story build- 
ing or on the top floor of a building, provided each fixture 



98 



VENTS AND VENTING 



drain connects independently to the stack and the water closet 
and bathtub or shower-stall drain enters the stack at the same 
level and in accordance with the requirements in Table 12.9. 3- 

12.13.2 Overtaxed Sewers. When a sink or combination 
fixture connects to the stack-vented bathroom group, and when 
the street sewer is sufficiently overloaded to cause frequent 
submersion of the building sewer, a relief vent or back-vented 
fixture shall be connected to the stack below the stack-vented 
water closet or bathtub. 

12.14 INDIVIDUAL FIXTURE REVENTING 

12.14.1 Horizontal Branches. One sink and one lavatory, 
or three lavatories within 8 feet developed length of a main- 
vented line may be installed on a 2-inch horizontal waste 
branch without reventing, provided the branch is not less than 
2 inches in diameter throughout its length, and provided the 
wastes are connected into the side of the branch and the branch 
leads to its stack connection with a pitch of not more than 
1/4 inch per foot. 

12.14.2 Where Required. When fixtures other than water 
closets discharge downstream from a water closet, each fix- 
ture connecting downstream shall be individually vented. 

12.14.3 Limits of Fixture Units Above Bathtubs and Water 
Closets, A fixture or combination of fixtures whose total dis- 
charge rating is not more than 3 fixture units may discharge 
into a stack not less than 3 inches in diameter without re- 
venting, provided such fixture connections are made above the 
connection to the highest water closet, or bathtub fee-wye, 
the fixture-unit rating of the stack is not otherwise exceeded, 
and their waste piping is installed as otherwise required in 
paragraph 12.14.1. 

12.15 CIRCUIT AND LOOP VENTING 

12.15.1 Battery Venting. A branch soil or waste pipe to 
which two but not more than eight water closets (except blow- 
out type), pedestal urinals, trap standard to floor, shower 
stalls, or floor drains are connected in battery, shall be vented 
by a circuit or loop vent which shall take off in front of the 
last fixture connection. In addition, lower-floor branches 
serving more than three water closets shall be provided with 

99 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



a relief vent taken off in front of the first fixture connection. 
When lavatories or similar fixtures discharge above such 
branches, each vertical branch shall be provided with a con- 
tinuous vent. 

12.15.2 ''lual Branches. When pajallel horizontal branches 
serve a total of eight water closets (four on each branch), each 
branch shall be provided with a relief vent at a point between 
the two most distant water closets. When other fixtures (than 
water closets) discharge above rhe horizontal branch, each 
sucli fixture shall be vented. 

12.15.3 Vent Connections. When the circuit, loop, 01 re- 
lief vent connections are taken off the horizontal branch, the 
vent branch connection shall be taken off at a vertical angle 
or from the top of the horizontal branch. 

12.15.4 Fixtures Back-to-Back in Battery. When fixtures 
are connected to one horizontal branch through a double wye 
or a sanitary tee in a vertical position, a common vent for 
each two fixtures back-to-back or double connection shall be 
provided. The common vent shall be installed in a vertical 
position as a continuation of the double connection. 

12.16 PNEUMATIC EJECTORS 

12.16.1 Relief vents from a pneumatic ejector shall not be 
connected to a fixture-branch vent but shall be carried separate- 
ly to a main vent or stack-vent or to the open air. 



12.17 RELIEF VENTS 

12.17.1 Stacks of More Than 10 Branch Intervals. Soil and 
waste stacks in buildings having more than 10 branch inter- 
vals shall be provided with a relief vent at each tenth inter- 
val installed, beginning with the top floor. The size of the 
relief vent shall be equal to the size of the vent stack to 
which it connects. The lower end of each relief vent shall 
connect to the soil or waste stack through a wye below the 
horizontal branch serving the floor and the upper end shall 
connect to the vent stack through a wye not less than 3 feet 
above the floor level. 



100 



VENTS AND VENTING 

12.18 OFFSETS AT AN ANGLE LESS THAN 45 DEG FROM 
THE HORIZONTAL IN BUILDINGS OF FIVE OR 
MORE STORIES 

12.18.1 Offset Vents. Offsets less than 45 deg from the 
horizontal, in a soil or waste stack, except as permitted in 
Chapter 11, Section il.6, shall comply with paragraphs 12.18.2 

and 12.18.3. 

12.18.2 Separate Venting. Such offsets may be vented as 
two separate soil or waste stacks, namely, the stack section 
below the offset and the stack section above the offset. 

12.18.3 Offset Reliefs. Such offsets may be vented by in- 
stalling a relief vent as a vertical continuation of the lower 
section of the stack or as a side vent connected to the lower 
section between the offset and the next lower fixture or hori- 
zontal branch. The upper section of the offset shall be pro- 
vided with a yoke vent. The diameter of the vents shall not 
be less than the diameter of the main vent, or of the soil and 
waste stack, whichever is the smaller. 

12-19 MAIN VENTS TO CONNECT AT BASE 

12. 19^^! AH main vents or vent stacks shall connect full 
size at their base to the building drain or to the main soil or 
waste pipe, at or below the lowest fixture branch. All vent 
pipes shall extend undiminished irt size above the roof, or 
shall be reconnected with the main soil or waste vento 

12.20 VENT HEADERS 

12.20.1 Connections of Vents. Stack-vents and vent stacks 
may be connected into a common vent header at the top of the 
stacks and then extended to the open air at one point. This 
header shall be sized in accordance with the requirements of 
Table 12. 21. 5, -the number of units being the sum of all units 
on all stacks connected thereto and the developed length 
being the longest vent length from the intersection at the 
base of the most distant stack to the vent terminal in the open 
air as a direct extension of one stack. 

12.21 SIZE AND LENGTH OF VENTS 

12.21.1 Length of Vent Stacks. The length of the vent 



101 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 

stack or main vent shall be its developed length from the low- 
est connection of the vent system with the soil stack, waste 
stack, or building drain to the vent stack terminal, if it term- 
inates separately in the open air, or to the connection of the 
vent stack with the stack-vent, plus the developed length of 
the stack-vent from the connection to the terminal in the open 
air, if the two vents are connected together with a single ex- 
tension to the open air. 

12.21.2 Size of Individual Vents. The diameter of an in- 
dividual vent shall be not less than 1 1/4 inches nor less 
than one-half the diameter of the drain to which it is con- 
nected. 

12.21.3 Size of Relief Vent. The diameter of a relief vent 
shall be not less than one-half the diameter of the soil or 
waste branch to which it is connected. 

12.21.4 Size of Circuit or Loop Vent. The diameter of a 
circuit or loop vent shall be not less than one-half the size of 
the diameter of the horizontal soil or waste branch or the 
diameter of the vent stack, whichever is smaller. 

12.21.5 Size of Vent Piping. The nominal size of vent 
piping shall be determined from its length and the total of 
fixture units connected thereto, as provided in Table 12.21.5- 
Twenty per cent of the total length may be installed in a hori- 
zontal position. 



102 



VENTS AND VENTING 



Table 12.21.5 SIZE AND LENGTH OF VENTS 



Size of 


Fixture 
Units 
Con- 






Diameter of Vent Required (Inches 


) 




soil or 


IVa 


I'? 


2 


2>/, 


3 


4 


5 


6 


8 


stack 


nected 


Maximum Length of Vent (Feet) 


Inches 






















IVa 


2 


30 


















w, 


8 


50 


150 
















\v-> 


10 


30 


100 
















2 


12 


30 


75 


200 














2 


20 


26 


50 


150 














2^2 


42 




30 


100 


300 












3 


10 




30 


100 


200 


600 










3 


30 






60 


200 


500 










3 


60 






50 


80 


400 










4 


100 


■••«.• 




35 


100 


260 


1000 








4 


200 






30 


90 


250 


900 








4 


500 






20 


70 


180 


700 








5 


200 








35 


80 


350 


1000 






5 


500 








30 


70 


300 


900 






5 


1100 









20 


50 


200 


700 






6 


350 








25 


50 


200 


400 


1300 




6 


620 








15 


30 


125 


300 


1100 




6 


960 










24 


100 


250 


1000 




6 


1900 










20 


70 


200 


700 




8 


600 












50 


150 


500 


1300 


8 


1400 












40 


100 


400 


1200 


8 


2200 






•••••• 






30 


80 


350 


lion 


8 


3600 












25 


60 


250 


800 


10 


1000 














75 


125 


1000 


10 


2500 














50 


100 


500 


10 


3800 














30 


80 


350 


10 


5600 














25 


60 


250 



12.22 COMBINATION WASTE-AND-VENT SYSTEM 

12.22.1 Where Permitted. A combination waste-and-vent 
system shall be permitted only where structural conditions pre- 
clude the installation of conventional system as otherwise 
provided in this Code. 

12.22.2 Limits. A combination waste-and-vent system is 
limited to floor drains and sinks. It consists of an installation 
of waste piping in which the trap of the fixture is not in- 
dividually vented. Every waste pipe and trap in the system 
shall be at least two pipe sizes larger than the size required in 
Chapter 11. 



103 



Chapter 13 

DRAINS 



13.1 GENERAL 

13.1.1 Drainage Required. Roofs, paved areas, yards, 
courts, and courtyards, shall be drained into a storm-sewer 
system or a combined-sewer system where such systems are 
available, 

13.1.2 Prohibited Drainage. Storm water shall not be 
drained into sewers intended for sewage only. 

13.1.3 Traps. Leaders and storm drains, when connected 
to a combined sewer, shall be trapped. 

13.1.4 Expansion Joints. Expansion joints or sleeves 
shall be provided where warranted by temperature variations 
or physical conditions. 

13.1.5 Subsoil Drains. Where subsoil drains are placed 
under the cellar or basement floor or are used to surround the 
outer walls of a building, they shall be made of open-jointed 
or horizontally split or perforated clay tile, or perforated 
bituminized fiber pipe or asbestos cement pipe, not less than 
4 inches in diameter. When the building is subject to back- 
water, the subsoil drain shall be protected by an accessibly 
located backwater valve. Subsoil drains may discharge into a 
properly trapped area drain or sump. Such sumps do not re- 
quire vents. 

13-1.6 Building Subdrains. Building subdrains located 
below the public sewer level shall discharge into a sump or 
receiving tank the contents of which shall be automatically 
lifted and discharged into the drainage system as required for 
building sumps. 

13.2 MATERIALS 

13.2.1 Inside Conductors. Conducters placed within a 
building or run in a vent or pipe shaft shall be of cast iron, 
galvanized steel, galvanized wrought iron, galvanized ferrous 
alloys, brass, copper, or lead. 

104 



STORM DRAINS 



13.2.2 Outside Leaders. When outside leaders are of 
sheet metal and connected with a building storm drain or 
storm sewer, they shall be connected to a cast-iron drain ex- 
tending above the finish grade, or the sheet-metal leader shall 
be protected against injury 

13.2.3 Underground Storm E>rains. Building storm drains 
underground, inside the building, shall be of cast iron soil 
pipe. 

13.2.4 Building Storm Drains. Building storm drains 
underground, inside the building, when not connected with a 
sanitary or combined sewer shall be of cast-iron soil pipe or 
ferrous-alloy piping except that when approved by the Admini- 
strative Authority, vitrified-clay pipe, concrete pipe, bitu- 
minized-fiber pipe and asbestos-cement pipe, may be used. 

13.2.5 Building Storm Sewers. The building storm sewer 
shall be of cast-iron soil pipe, vitrified-clay pipe, concrete 
pipe, bituminized-fiber pipe, or asbestos-cement pipe. 

13.3 TRAPS 

13.3.1 Main Trap. Individual storm-water traps shall be 
installed on the storm-water drain branch serving each con- 
ducter, or a single trap shall be installed in the main storm 
drain just before its connection with the combined building 
sewer, main drain, or public sewer. 

13.3.2 Material. Storm-water traps, when required, shall 
be of cast iron. 

13.3.3 No traps shall be required for storm-water drains 
which are connected to a sewer carrying storm water exclusive- 

ly. 

13.3.4 Traps for individual conductors shall be the same 
size as the horizontal drain to which they are connected. 

1^.3.5 Conductor traps shall be so located that an ac- 
cessible cleanout may be installed on the building side of the 
trap. 

1 3 .4 CONDUCTORS AND CONNECTIONS 

13.4.1 Conductor pipes shall not be used as soil, waste, 
or vent pipes, nor shall soil, waste, or vent pipes be used as 
conductors. 

105 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



13.4.2 Rain-water conductors installed along alley ways, 
driveways, or other locations where they may be exposed to 
damage shall be protected by metal guards, recessed into the 
wall, or constructed from ferrous alloy pipe- 

13.4.3 Combining storm with sanitary drainage. The 
sanitary and storm-drainage system of a building shall be 
entirely separate, except that where a combined sewer is 
available the building storm drain may be jon nected in the 
same horizontal plane through a single Y fitting to the com- 
bined drain or sewer at least 10 feet downstream from any 
soil stack. 

13.4.4 Double Connections of Storm Drains. Vihere the 
sanitary and storm drains are connected on both sides of the 
combined sewer, single Y's shall be used and the requirements 
of paragraph 13.4.3 relative to the location of connections 
shall also apply. 

13.4.5 Floor drains connected to a storm drain shall b? 
trapped. 



13.5 ROOF DRAINS 

13.5.1 Material. Roof drains shall be of cast iron, copper, 
lead, or other acceptable corrosion-resisting material. 

13.5.2 Strainers. All roof areas, except those draining to 
hanging gutters, shall be equipped with roof drains having 
strainers extending not less than 4 inches above the surface 
of the roof immediately adjacent to the roof drain. Strainers 
shall have an available inlet area, above roof level, of not 
less than l]4 times the area of the conductor or leader to which 
the drain is connected. 

13.5.3 Flat Decks. Roof drain strainers for use on sun 
decks, parking decks, and similar areas, normally serviced 
and maintained, may be of the flat surface type, level with the 
deck and shall have an available inlet area not less than 2 
times the area of the conductor or leader to which the drain 
is connected. 

13.5.4 Roof Drain Flashinj^s. The connection between 
roofs and roof drains which pass through the roof and into the 
interior of the building shall be made watertight by the use of 
proper flashing material. 

106 



STORM DRAINS 



13.6 SIZE OF LEADERS AND STORM DRAINS 

13.6.1 Vertical leaders shall be sized on the maximum 
projected roof area, according to the following table: 

Table 13.6.1 SIZE OF VERTICAL LEADERS 



Size of leader or conductor^ 


Maximum projected roof area 


Inches 


Square feet 


2 


720 


2'-^ 


1300 


3 


2200 


4 


4600 


5 


8650 


6 


13500 


8 


29000 



The equivalent diameter of square or rectangular leader may be taken 
as the diameter of that circle which may be inscribed within the cross- 
sectional area of the leader. 
NOTE: See footnote to Table 13.6.2. 



13.6.2 Building Storm Drain. The size of the building 
storm drain or any of its horizontal branches having a slope of 
'^ inch or less per foot, shall be based upon the maximum pro- 
jected roof area to be handled according to the following 
table: 

Table 13.6.2 SIZE OF HORIZONTAL STORM DRAINS 



Diameter of 


Maximum Projected Roof Area for 


Drain 


Drains of Various Slopes 


Inches 


1/8-In. Slope 


1/4-In, Slope 


1/2-In. Slope 




Square Feet 


Square Feet 


Square Feet 


3 


822 


1160 


1644 


4 


1880 


2650 


3760 


5 


3340 


4720 


6680 


6 


5350 


7550 


10700 


8 


11500 


16300 


23000 


10 


20700 


29200 


41400 


12 


33300 


47000 


66600 


15 


59500 


84000 


1 19000 



107 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



Tables 13.6.1 and 13-6.2 are based upon a maximum rate 
of rainfall of 4 inches per hour. If in any state, city, or other 
political subdivision, the maximum rate of rainfall is more or 
less than 4 inches per hour, then the figures for roof area 
must be adjusted proportionately by multiplying the figure by 
4 and dividing by the maximum rate of rainfall in inches per 
hour. 

13.6.3 Roof Gutters. The ^size of semicircular gutters 
shall be based on the maximum projected roof area, according 
to the following table: 



TABLE 13.6.3 SIZE OF GUTTERS 





Maximum Projected Roof Area for 


Diameter of 


Gutters of Various Slopes 


Gutter^ 












1/16-In. Slope 


1/8-In. Slope 


1/4-In. Slope 


1/2-In. Slope 


Inches 


Square Feet 


Square Feet 


Square Feet 


Square Feei 


3 


170 


240 


340 


480 


4 


360 


510 


720 


1020 


5 


625 


880 


1250 


1770 


6 


960 


1360 


1920 


2770 


7 


1380 


1950 


2 760 


3900 


8 


1990 


2800 


3980 


5600 


10 


3600 


5100 


7200 


10000 



Gutters other than semicircular may be used provided they have an equivalent 
cross- sec lional area, 

13.7 SIZE OF COMBINED DRAINS AND SEVtERS 

13.7.1 Conversion of roof area to fixture units of storm 
drains may be connected to a combined sewer. The drainage 
area may be converted to equivalent fixture unit loads. 

13.7.2 When the total fixture unit load on the combined 
drain is less than 256 fixtuie units, the equivalent drainage 
area in horizontal projection shall be taken as 1000 square 
feet. 

13.7.3 Uhen the total fixture-unit load exceeds 256 fix- 
ture units, each fixture unit shall be considereti the equivalent 
of 3.9 square feet of drainage area. 



108 



STORM DRAINS 



13.7.4 If the rainfall to be provided for is more or less 
than 4 inches per hour, the 1000 square foot equivalent in 
paragraph 13.7.2 and the 3.9 in paragraph 13.7.3 shall be ad- 
justed by multiplying by 4 and dividing by the rainfall per hour 
to be provided for. 

13.8 VALUES FOR CONTINUOUS FLOW 

13.8.1 Where there is a continuous or semicontinuous 
discharge into the building storm drain or building storm sewer, 
as from a pump, ejector, air-conditioning plant, or similar de- 
vice, each gallon per minute of such discharge shall be com- 
puted as being equivalent to 24 square feet of roof area, based 
upon a 4-inch rainfall. 



109 



Chapter 14 
INSPECTION, TESTS, AND 

MAINTENANCE 

14.1 INSPECTIONS 

14.1.1 New Work. All new plumbing work, ana such por- 
tions of existing systems as may be affected by new work or 
any changes, shall be inspected to insure compliance with all 
the requirements of this Code and to assure that the instal- 
lation and construction of the plumbing system is in accord- 
ance with approved plans. 

14.2 NOTIFICATION 

14.2.1 Advance Notice. It shall be the duty of the holder 
of a permit to give a notice to the Administrative Authority 
when plumbing work is ready for test or inspection. 

14.2.2 Plumber's Responsibility. It shall be the duty of 
the holder of a permit to make sure that the work will stand the 
rest prescribed before giving the notification. 

14.2.3 Retesting. If the Administrative Authority finds 
that the work willnot pass the test, the holder of a permit shall 
be required to make necessary corrections and the work shall 
then be resubmitted for test or inspection. 

14.2.4 Test. Tests shall be conducted in the presence of 
the Administrative Authority or his duly appointed representa- 
tive. 

14.3 PLUMBING PLANS 

14.3.1 Examination of Plans. All plans and specifications 
required to be submitted shall be examined by the Administra- 
tive Authority for acceptability under the provisions of this 
Code. 

14.4 VIOLATIONS 

14.4.1 Notices of violations shall be written and mailed 
or delivered by the Administrative Authority to the person re- 
sponsible at the time inspection was made. 

110 



INSPECTION, TESTS AND MAINTENANCE 



14.5 REINSPECTION 

14.5.1 Reinsp>ections. Reinspections of plumbing instal- 
lations of any part thereof shall be made when deemed neces- 
sary by the Administrative Authority. 

14.6 COVERING OF WORK 

14.6.1 Requirements. No drainage or plumbing system or 
part thereof shall be covered until it has been inspected, 
tested, and accepted as prescribed in this Code. 

14.6.2 Uncovering. If any building drainage or plumbing 
system or part thereof which is installed, altered, or repaired, 
is covered before being inspected, tested, and approved, as 
prescribed in this Code, it shall be uncovered for inspection 
after notice to uncover the work has been issued to the re- 
sponsible person by the Administrative Authority. 

14.7 MATERIAL AND LABOR FOR TESTS 

14.7.1 The equipment, material, and labor necessary for 
inspection or tests shall be furnished by the person to whom 
the permit is issued or by whom inspection is requested. 

14.8 TESTS OF DRAINAGE AND VENT SYSTEMS 

14.8.1 The piping of the plumbing, drainage and venting 
systems shall be tested with water or air . After the plumbing 
fixtures have been set and their traps filled with water, the 
entire drainage system shall be submitted to a final test. The 
Administrative Authority may require the removal of any clean- 
outs, to ascertain if the pressure has reached all parts gf the 
system. 

14.9 METHODS OF TESTING DRAINAGE 
AND VENT SYSTEMS 

14.9.1 Water Test. The water test shall be applied to the 
drainage system either in its entirety or in sections. If ap- 
plied to the entire system, all openings in the piping shall be 
tightly closed, except the highest opening, and the system 
filled with water to point of overflow. If the system is tested 
in sections, each opening shall be tightly plugged except the 
highest opening of the section under test, and each section 
shall be filled with water, but no section shall be tested with 

111 



AMERICAN STANDARD NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



less than a 10-foot head of water. In testing successive sec- 
tions at least the upper 10 feet of the next preceding section 
shall be tested, so that no joint or pipe in the building (ex- 
cept the uppermost 10 feet of the system) shall have been sub- 
mitted to a test of less than a 10-foot head of water. The 
water shall be kept in the system, or in the portion under test, 
for at least 15 minutes before inspection starts; the system 
shall then be tight at all points. 

14.9.2 Air Test. The air test shall be made by attaching 
an air compressor testing apparatus to any suitable opening, 
and, after closing all other inlets and outlets to the system, 
forcing air into the system until there is a uniform gage pres- 
sure of 5 psi or sufficient to balance a column of mercury 10 
inches in height. This pressure shall be held without intro- 
duction of additional air for a period of at least 15 minutes. 

14.9.3 Final Test. The final test of the completed drain- 
age and vent system may be either a smoke test or a pepper- 
mint test. Where the smoke test is preferred, it shall be made 
by filling all traps with water and then introducing into the 
entire system a pungent, thick smoke produced by one or more 
smoke machines. When the smoke appears at stack openings 
on the roof they shall be closed and a pressure equivalent to 
a 1-inch water column shall be built and maintained for 15 
minutes before inspection starts. Where the peppermint test 
is preferred, 2 ounces of oil of peppermint shall be intro- 
duced for each line or stack. 



14.10 BUILDING SEWER 

14.10.1 Test Required. Building sewers shall be tested. 

14.10.2 Method. Test shall consist of plugging end of 
building sewer at point of connection with the public sewer 
and filling the building sewer with water and testing with not 
less than a 10-foot head of water, or a flow test as provided 
by the Administrative Authority may be substituted. 

14.11 INSPECTION AND TEST NOT REQUIRED 

14.11.1 No test or inspection shall be required where a 
plumbing system, or part thereof, is set up for exhibition pur- 
poses and has no con nection with a water or drainage «ystem. 

112 * 



INSPECTION, TESTS AND MAINTENANCE 



14.12 TEST OF WATER-SUPPLY SYSTEM 

14.12.1 Upon completion of a section or of the entire water- 
supply system, it shall be tested and proved tight under a 
water pressure not less than the working pressure under which 
it is to be used. The water used for tests shall be obtained 
from a potable source of supply. 

14.13 TEST OF INTERIOR LEADERS OR DOWNSPOUTS 

14.13.1 Leaders or downspouts andbranches within a build- 
ing shall be tested by water or air in accordance with para- 
graph 14.9.1 or 14.9.2. 

14.14 CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL 

14.14.1 Upon the satisfactory completion and final test of 
the plumbing system a certificate of approval shall be issued 
by the Administrative Authority to the plumber to be delivered 
to the owner. 

14=15 DEFECTIVE PLUMBING 

l4ol5.1 Wherever there is reason to believe that the plumb- 
ing system of any building has become defective, it shall be 
subjected to test or inspection and any defects found shall be 
corrected as required in writing by the Administrative Authority. 

14,16 MAINTENANCE 

14.l6ol The plumbing and drainage system of any premises 
under the jurisdiction of the Administrative Authority shall be 
maintained in a sanitary and safe operating condition by the 
owner or his agent. 



113 



Appendix A 
INDIVIDUAL WATER SUPPLY 



INTRODUCTION 

Where connection to a municipal water supply or public 
water system is not possible, it is essential that certain pre- 
cautions be taken in the development of individual supplies. 
Consideration must be given to the hydrological, geological, 
and bacteriological factors affecting the quantity and quality 
of available water. In many cases specific information on these 
matters may be obtained from the State or local health authori- 
ties. In any event, such authorities should be consulted prior 
to the development of any individual water supply. 

Many residential areas not served by public water sup- 
ply or sewerage system have been developed in which the lot 
sizes are inadequate to permit the proper location of individu- 
al water and sewerage systems. In such instances it would be 
well to give serious consideration to the development of a com- 
munity water system to serve the entire area. The following 
requirements conform to those set forth in detail in Public 
Health Service, Supplement No. 185, "Individual Water Supply 
System'^ Recommendation of the Joint Committee on Rural 
Sanitation. 

A.l GENERAL 

A. 1.1 Ground Water Supply. A ground-water supply should 
be properly located, constructed, and operated in order to be 
safeguarded against contamination. 

A. 1.2 Well Location. The well site shall be chosen to permit 
the well to be situated an adequate distance from existing and 
potential sources of contamination as specified in Table A. 3. 2. 
In order to determine the separation necessary, it is essential 
to consider the character and location of the source of contami- 
nation, type of well construction, natural hydraulic gradient of 
water table, permeability of the water-bearing formation, extent 
of cone depression formed in the water table due to pumping the 
well, and the type of rock structure. In residential areas, the 



114 



INDIVIDUAL WATER SUPPLY 



possible effect of new construction on the safety of die water 
supply should also be considered. 

A. 1.3 Classification. Wells may be classified into four 
groups on the basis of methods of construction, as follows: Dug, 
bored, driven, and drilled. The type of well to be constructed 
will depend on the geology of the area and the depth of the 
water-bearing strata. Drilled wells, because of their greater 
depth usually have greater yields and are less affected by 
drought. They are usually more desirable from a public health 
viewpoint since they may be better protected against contami- 
nation than dug or bored wells. 

A. 2 QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF WATER 

A. 2.1 Minimum Quantity. The minimum quantity of water to 
provide for ordinary domestic use should be not less than 50 
gallons per person per day. The well and pumping equipment 
shall be adequate to provide the required quantity of water at 
the rate of 5 gallons per minute. 

A. 2. 2 Safe Water. The water shall contain no chemical or 
mineral substances capable of causing unfavorable physio- 
logical effects on those consuming the water. 

A. 2. 3 Chlorination. The water shall be free from pathogenic 
bacteria andother disease producing organisms. The well should 
be chlorinated after construction or repair to remove any con- 
tamination which may have gained access to the supply. (The 
State or local health department should be contacted relative 
to possible bacteriological testing.) 

A. 3 LOCATION 

A. 3-1 Minimum Distance. The minimum distance between 

any ground-water point of origin and suction lines and any 

source of contamination shall be not less than that given in 
Table A. 3. 2. 



115 



APPENDIX A 



Table A.3.2 
DISTANCES FROM SOURCE OF CONTAMINATION 



Distance 
(feet)l 

Sewer 50 

Septic tanks .50 

Subsurface pits 50 



Distance 
(feet)l 
Subsurface disposal fields 100 

Seepage pits 100 

Cesspools 150 



These distances constitute minimum separation and should be increased in 
areas of creviced rock or limestone, or where the direction of movement of 
the ground water is from sources of contamination toward the well. 

A. 3. 3 Elevation. The well site should have good surface 
drainage and should be at a higher elevation than possible 
sources of contamination. The top of the well should be at 
least 2 feet above the highest known water mark and at 1 east 
50 feet measured horizontally from surface bodies of water. 

A. 4 CONSTRUCTION 

A. 4.1 Depth. In no case shall an individual water supply be 
developed from a water-bearing stratum located less than 10 
feet below grade. 

Preferably, the water-bearing stratum should be located at 
least 20 feet from the natural ground surface. 

A. 4. 2 Outside Casing. The well shall be provided with an 
outside water-tight casing extending at least 10 feet below and 
and 6 inches above the ground surface. In the case of drilled or 
driven wells, the casing should be of steel or wrought iron. For 
dug or bored wells the casing should be of concrete 6 inches 
thick, except that in the case of the buried-slab type of dug or 
bored well, the upper 10-foot section of casing should be of 
steel or wrought iron as provided for drilled wells. The annular 
space between the casing and the earth formation shall be 
grouted to a depth of at least 10 feet. The casing shall be large 
enough to permit the installation of an independent drop pipe. 
The casing should preferably be sealed in an impermeable 
stratum or extended several feet into the water-bearing stratum. 

A. 4. 3 Cover. Every well shall be provided with a watertight 
cover overlapping the top of the casing or pipe sleeve. The 
annular opening between the casing or pipe sleeve and drop 
pine shall be sealed either by extending the casing or pipe 
sleeve into the base of the pump or by some suitable type of 
"well seal." 



116 



INDIVIDUAL WATER SUPPLY 



A. 4. 4 Drainage. The well platform or pump room floor shall 
be sloped to drain away from the well. The platform or floor 
shall be constructed of concrete at least 4 inches thick, or other 
material approved by the Administrative Authority. 

A. 4. 5 Dug or Bored Well. In the case of a dug or bored well, 
the cover shall overlap and extend downward at least 2 inches 
outside the wall or curbing of the well. 

A. 4. 6 Pipe Sleeve. A pipe sleeve of sufficient diameter to 
permit removal of the drop pipe and cylinder or jet body shall 
be provided in the cover. The pipe sleeve should extend at least 
1 inch above the cover. 

A. 5 PUMPING EQUIPMENT 

A. 5.1 Pumps. Pumps shall be so constructed and installed 
as to prevent the entrance of any contaminating substances into 
the water supply. 

A. 5. 2 Pump Head. The pump head shall be so designed as 
to prevent any contaminating substance from reaching the water 
chamber of the pump. 

A. 5. 3 Well Cover. The pump shall be so designed as to 
facilitate a waterproof seal with the well cover or casing. 

A. 5. 4 Priming. The pump shall be so designed and installed 
that priming will not be necessary. 

A. 5. 5 Maintenance. The installation shall be so designed 
as to facilitate necessary maintenance and repair. 

A. 5. 6 Protection. The well shall be protected against freez- 
ing by means of heating or by means of properly designed and 
installed underground discharge. 

A. 5. 7 Pump Room. Where the pump room is situated in an 
offset from the basement, the pump room floor shall be located 
not less than 18 inches above the basement floor. 

A. 5. 8 Weil Pits. The installation of well pits is not recom- 
mended. 

A. 5. 9 Pressure Tank. A pressure tank with a minimum stor- 
age capacity of 42 gallons per dwelling unit should be installed. 



117 



Appendix B 
INDIVIDUAL SEWAGE-DISPOSAL SYSTEM 



INTRODUCTION 

The most satisfactory method of disposing of sewage is by 
connection to a public sewerage system. Every effort should 
be made to secure public sewer extensions. When connection 
to a public sewer is not feasible and when a considerable 
number of residences are to be served, consideration should 
be given to the construction of a community sewer system and 
treatment plant. Specific information on this matter may be ob- 
tained from the local authorities having jurisdiction. In any 
event, such authority should be consulted prior to the installa- 
tion of an individual sewage-disf>osal system. Sewage-disposal 
installations serving commercial establishments for multiple 
dwelling units shall be designed in accordance with require- 
ments of the Administrative Authority. 

In those instances where the installation of a private resi- 
dential sewage-disposal system cannot be avoided, the follow- 
ing requirements should be followed. These requirements are 
based on Public Health Service Reprint No. 2461 "Individual 
Sewage-Disposal Systems" — recommendations of the Joint 
Committee on Rural Sanitation. As a result of research studies 
conducted by the U.S. Public Health Service and sponsored by 
the Housing and Home Finance Agency, the Joint Committee is 
of the opinion that the report may be modified in the following 
respects: 

1. Variations in shape of the septic tank within reasonable 
limits are permissible provided, that the total liquid capa- 
city is not reduced below 500 gallons. 

2. Insofar as suspended-solids reduction is concerned, mul- 
ti-compartment tanks also appear to be satisfactory; how- 
ever, when such tanks are used, the total liquid capacity 
should not be less than that set forth in the existing recom- 
mendations; no single compartment should contain less 
than 125 gallons; and the inlet and outlet connections 
and baffles for each compartment should follow the prin- 

118 



INDIVIDUAL SEWAGE-DISPOSAL SYSTEM 



ciples set forth for inlet and outlet connections and baf- 
fles in single compartment tanks, provided such connec- 
tions or baffles do not extend below the middepth of the 
liquid. 

3. Consideration should be given to location of individual 
compartments and their location relative to each other to 
permit convenient access to all compartments, thus as- 
suring complete servicing of the entire tank installation. 

4. Only durable materials should be used in the tank con- 
struction if the costs of maintenance and replacement 
are to be considered in the economic evaluation of the in- 
dividual sewage disposal system to the property owner. 

The research work referred to above was confined to the 
septic tank and therefore is not applicable to the complete 
disposal system. As additional information becomes available, 
it is expected that the Joint Committee will make such further 
revision of the recommendations as may be indicated. 

B.l GENERAL 

B.1.1 Design. The design of the individual sewage-dis- 
posal system must take into consideration location with re- 
spect to wells or other sources of water supply, topography, 
water table, soil characteristics, area available, and maximum 
occupancy of the building. 

B.l. 2 Type of System. The type of system to be installed 
shall be determined on the basis of location, soil permeability, 
and ground-water elevation. 

B.l. 3 Sanitary Sewage. The system shall be designed to 
receive all sanitary sewage, including laundry waste, from the 
building. Drainage from basement floor, footings, or roofs shall 
not enter the system. 

B.l. 4 Discharge. The system shall consist of a septic 
tank discharging into either a subsurface disposal field or one 
or more seepage pits or into a combination of both, as approved 
by the Administrative Authority. 

B.l. 5 Alternate Design. Where soil conditions are such 
that neither of the systems mentioned in B.1.4 can be expected 
to operate satisfactorily, approval of an alternate design shall 
be secured from the Administrative Authority with concurrence 
of the proper health authorities having jurisdiction. 

119 



APPENDIX B 



B.2 LOCATION 

B.2.1 Distances. Table B.2. 2 provides for the minimum 
distances that shall be observed in locating the various com- 
ponents of the disposal system. 



LU 

H 

>- 

CO 



< 

O 

a. 

Q 

I 

LU 

o 
< 

UJ 

to 

u_ 
o 

CO 

H 
Z 
LU 

O 
D. 

:s 
o 
u 

LJ_ 

o 



< 

u 
o 



CN 
CN 

CO 

o 





UJ 


















1 




'* ,„ 


















rt i2 


*-> 










o 


u~\ 




a..-. 


u 










r^i 


,_^ 




oj rv 


OJ 
















m 


Uh 
















c/) 


















"cS 


















<M -a 


















O — ' 


















a w 


11 










o 


u-\ 




t/l '."^ 


u 










rsi 


f— t 




._, u. 


tu 
















Q 
















>. 


















u 








o c 


ITN 




S-J 


UJ 








r— 1 , ( 


' ' 




CL 
















_l^ 






. 






4-> 








^ 


UJ 00 


aj 








u 


^ C 


w 






o o o o 


c 


Q" 


tL, 






-H rs ^ (-Nj 


« 










w 




























b 


E 


1) 














K 


OJ 








ITN O 


O 




u< 


tu 








rs u-N 


1/-N 




;)5 








^ X 1 










Watei 
Suppl 
Line 
(Pres 
sure) 


11 


o 














•- a 










o cj 


4-» 








— . 'S c 


lU 


o c 


c o c o c 




V, ^ ■ 1 


<u 


iy-\ u- 


u-\ O C l^ ITN 




.1^ D -J 


U, 




F-H f— 4 •— ( 




E» 00 














X 




e 




OJ 


2"-^ 




<u 














.2^-5. ~ 




c/) 




t-cS 


3 M (u r: o 




M-1 




c 


J3 (/) Wj D " 




o 




is-^ 


■^ g 2 ^ & 




l; 






L </i w u >. r' 




D- 




':; c 








£ 


1. 


C 


C 




C 




1 



4> (8 






a o 01 



■J 5 c 5 



E ^ 



jd C o to 

1- ".? a 



120 



INDIVIDUAL SEWAGE-DISPOSAL SYSTEM 



B.2.3 Septic Tanks. Septic tanks or other private means of 
disposal shall not be approved where public sewer is avail- 
able. Such means of disposal shall be discontinued when pub- 
lic sewers are made available, if directed by the legal authori- 
ties. 

B.3 BUILDING SEWER 

B.3.1 Size. The sewer shall be of a minimum size to serve 
the connected fixtures as determined from Chapter 11 of the 
Code. 

B.3. 2 SIop>c. The sewer shall have a minimum slope as de- 
termined in Chapter 11, Table 11.5.2, except that the slope of 
the sewer 10 feet preceding the tank connection shall not ex- 
ceed 14 inch per foot. 

B.4 SEPTIC TANK 

B.4.1 Capacity. The septic tank shall have a minimum 
capacity in accordance with the provisions of Table B.4. 2. 



Table B.4.2 MINIMUM CAPACITIES FOR SEPTIC TANKS SERVING 
AN INDIVIDUAL DWELLING 





Maximum 


Nominal 


Recommended I 


n&ide Dimensions 


Number of 


Number of 
Persons 


Liquid 
Capacity 








Bedrooms 






Liquid 


Total 




Served 


of Tank 


Length 


Width 


Depth 


Depth 




Persons 


Gallons 


Ft In 


Ft.In 


Ft In 


Ft In 


2 or less 


4 


500 


6 


3 


4 


5 


3 


6 


600 


7 


3 


4 


5 


4 


8 


750 


7 6 


3 6 


4 


5 


5 


10 


900 


8 6 


3 6 


4 6 


5 6 


6 


12 


1,100 


8 6 


4 


4 6 


5 6 


7 


14 


1,300 


10 


4 


4 6 


5 6 


8 


16 


1,500 


10 


4 6 


4 6 


5 6 



NOTE: Liquid capacity is based on number of bedrooms in dwelling, 
volume in cubic feet includes air space above liquid level. 



Total 



121 



APPENDIX B 



B.4.3 Multiple Compartments. 'In tank of more than one com- 
partment, the inlet compartment shall have a capacity of not 
less than two-thirds of the total tank capacity. 

B.4.4 Garbage Disposal. Where domestic garbage disposal 
units are installed or contemplated, the capacity of the septic 
tank shall be at least 50 per cent greater than the requirements 
given in table B.4.2. 

B.4.5 Length. Septic tanks shall be at least twice as long 
as they are wide. 

B.4.6 Construction. Septic tanks shall be constructed of 
corrosion-resistant materials and be of permanent construc- 
tion. The cover of the tank shall be designed for a dead load 
of not less than 150 pounds per square foot and, if of concrete, 
should be reinforced and not less than 4 inches thick. 

B.4.7 Manholes. The inlet compartment must be provide'j 
with one manhole. Other compartments may be provided with a 
manhole. Manholes shall be at least 20 inches square or 24 
inches in diameter and provided with covers which can be 
sealed watertight. Manholes should be extended to grade. 
Where removable slab covers are provided, manholes are not 
required. 

B.4.8 Baffles. If inlet and outlet baffles are used, they 
shall extend the full width of the tank and be located 12 inches 
froni the end walls. Such baffles shall extend at least 6 inches 
above the flow line. Inlet baffles shall extend 12 inches and 
outlet baffles 15 to 18 inches below the flow line. 

B.4.9 Pipe Inlet and Outlet. In lieu of baffles, submerged 
pipe inlets and outlets may be installed consisting of a cast- 
iron sanitary T with a short section of pipe to the required 
depth as indicated in paragraph B.4.8. 

B.4.10 Invert. The invert of the inlet pipe shall be located 
at least 3 inches above the invert of the outlet. 

B.4.11 Dosing Chambers. Dosing chambers are not required 
in the case of individual disposal systems. 

B.5 DISTRIBUTION BOX 

B.5.1 Required. A distribution box shall be provided to re- 
ceive the effluent from the septic tank to assure equal distribu- 
tion to each individual line of the disposal field. 



122 



INDIVIDUAL SEWAGE-DISPOSAL SYSTEM 



B.5.2 Connection. The distribution box shall be connected 
to the septic tank by a tight sewer line and be located at the 
upper end of the disposal field. 

B.5.3 Invert Level. The invert of the inlet pipe shall be lo- 
cated 2 inches above the bottom of the box. The invert of the 
outlets to each distribution line shall be level with the bottom 
of the box and set at the same elevation. 

B.5.4 Inspection. The sides of the box should extend to 
within a short distance of the ground surface to permit inspec- 
tion. The box should be kept to the minimum size necessary 
to accommodate the inlet and outlets. 

B.6 ABSORPTION AREAS 

B.6.1 Individual Residences. The absorption areas for in- 
dividual residences shall be determined from table B.6. 2. 

Table B.6.2 ABSORPTION AREAS FOR 
INDIVIDUAL RESIDENCES 



Time Required for 

Water to Fall 

1 Inch (Minutes) 



2 or less 

3 

4 

5 

10 
15 
30 
60 
Over 60 



Effective Absorption Area 

Required in Bottom of 

Disposal Trenches 

(Square Feet per Bedroom) 



50 

60 

70 

80 

100 

130 

180 

240 

(') 



Special design 
NOTE: A minimum of 150 sq ft should be provided 
for each dwelling unit. 

B.7 PROCEDURE TO BE EOLLOWED FOR 
PERCOLATION TEST 

B.7.1 Size of Test Holes. Not less than three holes shall 
be tested, each to be 1 foot square and as deep as the pro- 
posed disposal trenches. 

B.7. 2 Variations in Soil Condition. Fill each hole to a 
depth of at least 6 inches and allow the water to seep away. 



123 



APPENDIX B 



Allowance shall be made for variation in soil conditions at the 
time of the test from year-round average conditions. Where ex- 
ceptional conditions are encountered, greater depths of water 
may be used or the test repeated. 

B.7.3 Effective Absorption. Observe the time in minutes 
for the water to seep away completely. Calculate the time in 
minutes for the water to fall 1 inch. Average the results from 
the holes tested. The effective absorption area required shall 
then be determined from Table B. 6. 2. 

B.7.4 Special Soils. Tests shall not be made on filled or 
frozen ground. Where fissure-soil formation is encountered, tests 
shall be made under the direction of the Administrative Authority 
or the health department having jurisdiction. 

B.8 MINIMUM STANDARDS FOR DISPOSAL 
FIELD CONSTRUCTION 

B.8.1 Disposal Field Construction. The minimum standards 
for disposal field construction shall be as given in Table B.8. 2. 
Table B.8.2 MINIMUM STANDARDS FOR DISPOSAL FIELD 
CONSTRUCTION 

Minimum 
Disposal-field construction Standard 

Lines per field, minimum number 2 

Individual lines, maximum length 100 ft 

Trench bottom, minimum width 18 in. 

Field tile, minimum diameter 4 in> 

Field-tile lines, maximum slope *^ '"• '" i"Ott 

Field trenches, minimum separation *"" " 

Effective absorption area, minimum per dwelling unit ( ) 
'see Table B.6.2. 

B.9 DISPOSAL TRENCHES 

B.9.1 Disposal Trenches. Disposal trenches shall be de- 
signed and constructed on the basis of the required effective 
percolation area. 

B.9.2 Filter Material. The filter material shall cover the 
tile and extend the full width of the trench and shall be not 
less than 6 inches deep beneath the bottom of the tile. The 
filter material may be washed gravel, crushed stone, slag, or 
clean bank-run gravel ranging in size from V2 to 2'/2 inches. 
The filter material shall be covered by untreated paper or by a 
2-inch layer of straw as the laying of the tile drain proceeds. 

124 



INDIVIDUAL SEWAGE-DISPOSAL SYSTEM 



B.9.3 Disposal Field. The size and minimum spacing re- 
quirements for disposal fields shall conform to those given in 
Table B. 9.4. 

Table B.9.4 SIZE AND SPACING FOR DISPOSAL FIELDS 



width of Trench 
at Bottom 


Recommended 
Depth of 
Trench 


Spacing 

Tile 
Lines' 


Effective Ab- 
sorption Area 
per l.ineal Foot 
of Trench 


Inches 

18 
24 
30 
36 


Inches 

18 to 30 
18 to 30 
18 to 36 
24 to 36 


Feet 

6.0 
6.0 
7.6 
9.0 


Square Feet 

1.5 
2.0 
2.5 
3.0 



A greater spacing is desirable where available area permits. 

B.9.5 Absorption Lines. Absorption lines shall be con- 
structed of tile laid with open joints. In the case of bell-and- 
spigot tile, it should be laid with /^-inch open joints, at 2-foot 
intervals with sufficient cement mortar at the bottom of the 
joint to insure an even flow line. In the case of agricultural 
tile, the sections shall be spaced not more than % inch, and 
the upper half of the joint shall be protected by asphalt-treated 
paper while the tile is being covered, unless the pipe is 
covered by at least 2 inches of gravel. Perforated clay tile or 
perforated bituminized-fiber pipe or asbestos cement pipe may 
be used, provided that sufficient openings are available for 
distribution of the effluent into the trench area. 

B.IO SEEPAGE PIT 

B.10.1 Seepage Pit. Seepage pits may be used either to 
supplement the subsurface disposal field or in lieu of such 
field where conditions favor the operation of seepage pits, as 
may be determined and approved by the Administrative Author- 
ity. 

B.10.2 WaterTable. Care shall be taken to avoid extending 
the seepage pit into the ground-water table. Where the pit is 
used to receive the septic-tank effluent, the same limitations 
shall be placed on the location of the pit as on the cesspool. 
(See par. B.12.3.) 



125 



AIM^KNOIX h 



B.10.3 Pit Lining. Fxcept as provided in paragraph D.10.6 
the pit shall be lined with stone, brick, or concrete blocks 
laid up dry with open joints that are backed up with at least 
3 inches of coarse gravel. The joints above the inlet shall be 
sealed with cement mortar. It is customary to draw in the 
upper section of the lining. 

B.10.4 Pit Covers. A reinforced-concrete cover shall be 
provided, preferably to finished grade. If the cover is over 30 
inches square, it shall have an access manhole. 

B.10.5 Bottom of Pit. The bottom of the pit shall be filled 
with coarse gravel to a depth of 1 foot. 

B.10.6 Trees. When the seepage pit is located in close 
proximity to trees, it need not be lined as indicated in para- 
graph R.10.3; instead, it may be filled with loose rock. 

B.10.7 Size of Pit. The seepage pit shall be sized in ac- 
cordance with provisions in table D.10.8. 

Table B.10.8 REQUIREMENTS FOR SEEPAGE -PIT DESIGN 

l-.ffective Absorption Area 
Required per Bedroom' 
(Square Feet) 
Soil structure: 

Coarse sand and gravel 20 

Fine sand 30 

Sandy loam or sand clay 50 

Clay -with considerable sand and gravel 80 

Clay with small amount of sand and gravel ... 160 

In calculating absorption wall area of pit, gross diameter of pit excavation 
shall be used, 

B.10.9 Soil Structure. Heavy tight clay, hardpan, rock or 
other impervious soil formations are not suitable for seepage- 
pit construction. 

B.ll DRY WELL 

B.11.1 Dry Well Required. When necessary, a dry well shall 
be provided to receive the drainage from roofs, basements, or 
areaways. 

B.ll. 2 Size of Dry Well. Large dry wells, shall be con- 
structed in general accordance with the requirements given for 
seepage pits. Section B.IO. 

126 



INDIVIDUAL SEWAGE-DISPOSAL SYSTEM 



B.11.3 Small Dry Wells. For small dry wells handling limited 
quantities of water, the pit may consist of a 3-foot length of 
18-inch-diameter vitrified clay or cement pipe, filled with 
crushed rock or stone. 

B.12 CESSPOOL 

B.12.1 Use. The use of cesspools for disposal of sewage 
and their installation will be accepted only if approval is ob- 
tained, before work is begun, from the Administrative Authority 
or the health department having jurisdiction. 

B.12. 2 Installations. Cesspool installations shall be con- 
sidered only as a temporary expedient in those instances 
where connections to a public sewer system will be possible 
within a reasonable period of time. 

B.12.3 Health Hazard. Because of the public health hazard 
involved, extreme care shall be exercised in locating a cess- 
pool. Under no circumstances shall the cesspool penetrate 
the ground- water stratum. 

B.12.4 Construction. The construction of the cesspool 
shall comply with the requirements for seepage pits as given 
in Section B.IO. 



127 



Appendix C 

AIR GAPS, BACKFLOW PREVENTERS, 

AND DRINKING FOUNTAIN STANDARDS 

(Based on ASA A40.4 and A40.6) 

C.l GENERAL 

C.1.1 Dackflow connections shall not be permitted between 
the piping system carrying a potable water supply and any 
piping system or plumbing equipment carrying nonpotable water 
or water-borne waste. 

C.2 AIR GAPS 

C.2.1 The air gap in a water-supply system is the unob- 
structed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between 
the lowest opening from any pipe or faucet supplying water to 
a tank or plumbing fixture and the floodlevel rim of the re- 
ceptacle. (See Fig. 1 and Fig.. 2.) 

C.2. 2 The minimum required air gap shall be measured 
vertically from the end of the faucet spout or supply pipe to 
the floodlevel rim of the fixture or vessel. (See Fiq.l and 

Fir,. 2.) 

C.2. 3 The water inlet to certain fixtures, such as water- 
closet flush tanks and tanks or vats, may be difficult to pro- 
tect with air gaps and therefore requires special consideration. 
(See pars. C.2. 5, C.2. 6, C.2. 7, C.2. 8, C.2. 9-) 

C.2. 4 The minimum required air gap shall be twice the 
diameter of the effective opening, but in no case less than 
given in Table C.2. 4. (See next page). 

C.2. 5 Where it is not practical to provide a minimum re- 
quired air gap above the floodlevel rim of a tank or vat, an 
/jrrangement similar to that shown on hig. 3 may be j^ovided. 

C.2. 6 The overflow pipe or channel shall be so arranged 
as to allow overflow water a free discharge to atmosphere 
under all conditions, overflow piping to be provided with an 



128 



AIR GAPS, BACKFLOW PREVENTERS, 
AND DRINKING FOUNTAIN STANDARDS 



Table C.2.4 MINIMUM AIR GAPS FOR GENERALLY 
USED PLUMBING FIXTURES 





Minimum Air Gap 


Fixture 


When not Affected 
by Near Wall' 


When Affected 
by Near Wall' 


Lavatories with effective open- 
ings not greater than '^-in. di- 


1.0 

1.5 
2.0 


1.50 

2.25 
3.00 


Sink, laundry trays, and goose 
neck bath faucets with effec- 
tive openings not greater than 


Overrim bath fillers with effec- 
tive openings not greater than 


Effective openings greater than 
1-in 







Side walls, ribs, or similarobstructions do not affect the air gaps when spaced 
from inside edge of spout opening a distance greater than three times the diameter 
of the effective opening for a single wall, or a distance greater than four times 
the diameter of the effective opening for two intersecting walls. (See Fig. 2.) 

Vertical walls, ribs, or similar obstructions extending from the water surface 
to or above the horizontal plane of the spout opening require a greater air gap 
when spaced closer to the nearest inside edge of spout opening than specified 
in note 1 above. The effect of three or more such vertical walls or ribs has not 
been determined In such cas^s, the air gap shall be measured from the top of 
the wall. 

2 X effective opening. 

3 X effective opening. 



^ 



-FLOOD LEVEL 
RIM OF FIXTURE 

THE CASE WHEN 
EFFECTIVE fMIN- 
IMUKAJ OPENING IS 
THROUGH THE 
SEAT 





— FLOOD LEVEL 
RIM OF FIXTURE 



Fig.. 1 AIR GAP AND EFFECTIVE OPENING 



Fi«. 2 NEAR WALL 
INFLUENCE 
ON AIR GAP 



129 



AF^F^HNDIX C 



adequate break in the piping as close to the tank as possible, 
and the area of the free opening shall be at least equal to that 
of the overflow pipe. (See I"ig, 3.) Tank and overflow piping 
must be protected against freezing. 

C.2.7 When water enters the tank at the maximum rate with 
all inlets open and all outlets closed, the size and capacity 
of overflow pipe or channel shall be sufficient to keep the 
water level from rising to more than half of the minimum re- 
quired air gap as shown in Table C,. 2. 4., said distance to be 
measured above the top of the overflow. 

C.2.8 The minimum air gap, as measured from the lowest 
point of any supply outlet to the top of the overflow opening, 
shall be one and one-half times the minimum air gap as re- 
quired by f\ible ('-2.1. (Sec 1 ii.',, 3!) 

C.2.9 If a tank or vat cannot be provided with an adequate 
air gap as required, a backflow (back-siphonage) preventer is 
required. 

C.3 DRINKING FOUNTAIN NOZZLES 

C.3.1 Minimum Elevation. All drinking fountain nozzles in- 
cluding those which may at times extend through a water sur- 
face with orifice not greater than 7/l6 (0.440) inch diameter 
or 0.150 square inch area shall be placed so that the lower 
edge of the nozzle orifice is at an elevation not less than 3/4 
inch above the floodlevel rim of the receptacle. 

C.3.2 The 3/4-inch elevation shall also apply to nozzles 
with more than one orifice, provided that the sum of the area 
of all orifices shall not exceed the area of a circle 7/16 inch 
in diameter. 

C.3. 3 Special conditions and certain other materials re- 
lated to drinking fountains shall meet requirements as set 
forth in American Standard A40.4-1942 and American Standard 
ASA Z4.2, respectively. 

C.4 VACUUM BREAKERS OR BACKFLOW PREVENTERS 

C.4.1 Required. Backflow preventers shall be installed 
with any supply fixture, the outlet end of which may at times 
be submerged, such as hose and spray, direct flushing valves, 
aspirators and underrim water supply connections to a plumb- 



130 



AIR GAPS, BACKFLOW PREVENTORS, 
AND DRINKING EOUNTAIN STANDARDS 



iog fixture or receptacle in which the surface of the water in 
the fixture or receptacle is exposed at all times to atmospheric 
pressure. The type of preventer referred to will 'not protect 
against flow when water is discharged through it into a space 
which is higher than atmospheric pressure. 

C.4.2 Where. Backflow preventers shall be installed 
between the control valve and the fixture and in such a manner 
that it will not be subjected to water pressure, except the 
back pressure incidental to water flowing to the fixture. 

C.4.3 Backflow preventers shall not be installed on inlet 
side of control valve. 



'NLET PIPE 



SPILL LEVEL (HIGHEST 
POSSIBLE WATER LEVEL) 



M 

A TOP OF OVERFLOW 



':^^ 



iY 



Y-MINIMUM REQUIRED 
AIR GAP 
(SEE TABLE I) 



OVERFLOW 
PIPE 




BREAK IN PIPING 



OPENINGS FOR FREE 
FLOW TO ATMOSPHERE 
SHALL HAVE AREA 
EQUAL TO OR GREATER 
THAN AREA OF OVER- 
FLOW PIPE ''Z" 



WASTE PIPE 



Fiij. 3 AIR GAP IN OPEN TANK WITH OVERFLOW 



C.5 EFFECTIVE OPENING 

C.5.1 The effective opening is the minimum cross-sectional 
area at the point of water-supply discharge, and is measured 
or expressed in terms of the diameter of a circle or, if the 
opening is not circular, the diameter of a circle of equivalent 
crosssectional area. (See Fig. 1 point B; in some cases it 
may be point X.) 



131 



APPENDIX C 



C.6 MATERIALS 

C.6.1 Backflow preventers shall be made of corrosion- 
resistant material and shall be so designed and proportioned 
as to prevent deterioration or deformation under reasonable 
service conditions. 



C.7 TESTS AND PERFORMANCE 

C.7.1 Backflow preventers shall have been tested and ap- 
proved to meet tests and performances as required for Back- 
flow Preventers ASA A40. 6-1943. 



C.8 DRINKING-FOUNTAIN STANDARDS (ASA Z4. 2-1942) 

C.8.1 Material. The fountain should be constructed of 
impervious material, such as vitreous china, porcelain, enameled 
cast iron, other metals, or stoneware. 

C.8. 2 Installation. The jet of the fountain should issue 
from a nozzle of nonoxidizing, impervious material set at an 
angle from the vertical such as to prevent the return of water 
in the jet to the orifice or orifices from whence the jet issues. 
The nozzle and every other opening in the water pipe or con- 
ductor leading to the nozzle should be above the edge of the 
bowl, so that such nozzle or opening cannot be flooded in 
case a drain from the bowl of the fountain becomes clogged. 

C.8. 3 Protection. The end of the nozzle should be pro- 
tected by nonoxidizing guards to prevent the mouth and nose 
of the user from coming into contact with the nozzle. Guards 
should be so designed that the possibility of transmission of 
infection by touching the guards is reduced to a minimum. 

C.8.4 Spattering. The inclined jet of water issuing from 
the nozzle should not touch the guard, and thereby cause 
spattering. 

C.8. 5 Cleansing. The bowl of the fountain should be so 
designed and proportioned as to be free from corners which 
would be difficult to clean or whicli would collect dirt. 

C.8.6 Splashing. The bowl of the fountain should be so 
proportioned as to prevent unnecessary splashing at a point 
where the jet falls into the bowl. 



132 



AIR GAPS, BACKFLOW PREVENTORS, 
AND DRINKING FOUNTAIN STANDARDS 



C.8.7 Traps. The drain from the fountain should not have 
a direct physical connection with a waste pipe, unless the 
drain is trapped. 

C.8.8 Flow Regulator. Ihe water-supply pipe would be 
provided with an adjustable valve fitted with a loose key or 
an automatic valve permitting the regulation of the rate of flow 
of water to the fountain so that the valve manipulated by the 
users of the fountain will merely turn the water on or off. 

C.8.9 Height. The height of the fountain at the drinking 
level should be such as to be most convenient to persons 
using the fountain. The provision of several step-like ele- 
vations to the floor at fountains will j^ermit children of various 
ages to utilize the fountain. 

C.8.10 Flow. The waste opening and pipe should be of 
sufficient size to carry off the water promptly. The opening 
should be provided with a strainer. 



133 



Appendix D 
SIZING THE WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM 



GENERAL 

Proper design of the water-distributing system in a building 
is necessary in order that the various fixtures may function 
properly. The amount of either hot or cold water used in any 
^building is variable, depending on the type of structure, usage, 
occupancy, and time of day. It is necessary to provide pip- 
ing, water heating, and storage facilities of sufficient capacity 
to meet the peak demand without wasteful excess in either 
piping or equivalent cost. 

For additional information on this subject the reader is 
referred to "Water Supply Piping for Plumbing Systems" by 
F. M. Dawson and A. A. Kalinske — "Technical Bulletin No. 
3 of the National Association of Master Plumbers; "Water- 
Distributing Systems for Buildings" by Roy B. Hunter; Report 
BN'S 79 of the National Bureau of Standards, and Plumbing 
.Ntanual — Report BMS 66 alsopublished by the National Bureau 
of Standards. 

This appendix gives a suggested procedure for sizing the 
water-supply system prepared by F. M. Dawson. 

D.l PRELIMINARY INFORMATION 

D.1.1 Available Pressure. Obtain the necessary information 
regarding the minimum daily service pressure in the area where 
the building is to be located. 

D.l. 2 Piping Material. Obtain all available local infor- 
mation regarding the use of different kinds of pipe with re- 
spect both to durability and to decrease in capacity with 
length of service in the particular water supply. 

D.2 ESTIMATE OF DEMAND LOAD 
AND PIPE CAPACITY 
D.2.1 Rate of Flow. One of the important items that must 

134 



SIZING THE WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM 



be determined before any part of the water-piping system can 
be sized is the probable rate of flow in any particular reach 
of piping. The rate of flow in the service, line, risers, and 
main branches, however, will rarely be equal to the sum of 
the rates of flow of all connected fixtures. In fact, the proba- 
bility of every fixture in a large group being used at the same 
time is so remote that it would be very poor engineering to 
design the piping large enough to take care of such simul- 
taneous flow. 

D.2.2 Simultaneous Use. The demand load in building 
water-supply systems cannot be determined exactly and is 
not readily standardized. The two main problems to be con- 
sidered are: (1) the satisfactory supply of water for a given 
fixture and (2) the number of fixtures which may be assumed 
to be in use at the same time. 

D.2.3 Daily Demand. The minimum flow that will be satis- 
factory to the consumer depends greatly on the consumer, his 
standard of living, his professional needs, size of family, gar- 
den requirements, and similar factors. Depending on those 
factors, per capita water consumption for domestic use usually 
varies between 20 and 80 gallons per day. 

D.2.4 Type of Building. Experience indicates th^<t the 
type of dwelling has considerable influence on the water con- 
sumption. 

D.2.5 Apartment Buildings. In apartment houses the per 
capita daily water consumption is generally higher than in 
single family houses. This is due to the central metering 
system which is not conducive to the saving of water and to 
long hot-water lines which result in high heat losses, thus in 
the wasting of the cooled water. In designing water supply 
systems for apartment houses, a daily per capita water con- 
sumption of 50 gallons may be considered a safe design 
figure. 

D.2.6 Dwellings. Although a considerable number of 
housing projects have been developed across the nation, con- 
clusive water-consumption data have not been gathered as yet. 
Nevertheless, it seems that the daily per capita water con- 
sumption in housing projects falls in between the consumption 
in apartment houses and single dwellings at the same geo- 



135 



APPENDIX D 



graphical location. In general, a daily per capital water con- 
sumption of 40 gallons can be used as a safe design figure for 
housing projects. 

D.3 FLOW AND PRESSURE REQUIRED 

D.3-1 Table D.3-2 gives the rate of flow desirable for 
many common types of fixtures, and the average pressure neces- 
sary to give this rate of flow. The pressure necessarily varies 
with fixture design; with some, a much greater pressure is 
necessary to give the same rate of flow than with others. 

D.3.2 

Table D.3.2 RATE OF FLOW AND REQUIRED 

PRESSURE DURING FLOW FOR DIFFERENT 

FIXTURES 



Fixture 


Flow 
Pressure (a) 
psi 


Flow rate 

gpm 


Ordinary basin faucet 


8 


3.0 


Self-closing basin faucet 


12 


2.5 


Sink Faucet - 3/8 in. 


10 


4.5 


Sink Faucet - 1/2 in. 


5 


4.5 


Bathtub faucet 


5 


6.0 


Laundry tub cock - 1/2 in. 


5 


5.0 


Shower 


12 


5.0 


Ball-cock for closet 


15 


3.0 


Flush valve for closet 


10-20 


15-40 (b) 


Flush valve for urinal 


15 


15.0 


Garden hose, 50 ft. and sill co 


ck 30 


5.0 



(a) Flow pressure is the pressure in the pipe at the en- 
trance to the particular fixture considered. 

(b) Wide range due to variation in design and type of 
flush-valvc closets. 

D.3. 3 In estimating the load, the rate of flow is frequently 
computed in fixture units. 

D.3.4 Table D.3. 5 gives the demand weight in terms of 
fixture units for different plumbing fixtures under several con- 
ditions of service. 



136 



SIZING THE WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM 

Table D.3.5 DEMAND WEIGHT OF FIXTURES IN 
FIXTURE UNITS (a) 









Weight in 


Fixture or Group (b) 


Occupancy 


Type of Supply 


Fixture 






Control 


Units (c) 


Water closet 


Public 


Flush valve 


10 


Water closet 


Public 


Flush tank 


5 


Pedestal urinal 


Public 


Flush valve 


10 


Stall or wall urinal 


Public 


Flush valVe 


5 


Stall or wall urinal 


Public 


Flush tank 


3 


Lavatory 


Public 


Faucet 


2 


Bathtub 


Public 


Faucet 


4 


Shower liead 


Public 


Mixing valve 


4 


Service sink 


Office, etc. 


Faucet 


3 


Kitchen sink 


Hotel or 








restaurant 


Faucet 


4 


Water closet 


Private 


Flush valve 


6 


Water closet 


Private 


Flush tank 


3 


Lavatory 


Private 


Faucet 


1 


Bathtub 


Private 


Faucet 


2 


Shower head 


Private 


Mixing valve 


2 


Bathroom group 


Private 


Flush valve for 








closet 


8 


Bathroom group 


Private 


Flush tank for 








closet 


6 


Separate shower 


Private 


Mixing valve 


2 


Kitchen sink 


Private 


Faucet 


2 


Laundry trays (1-3) 


Private 


Faucet 


3 


Combination fixture 


Private 


Faucet 


3 



(a) For supply outlets likely to impose continuous demands estimate 
continuous supply separately and add to total demand for fijttiires. 

(b) For fixtures not listed, weights may be assumed by comparing the fix- 
ture to a listed one using water in similar quantities and at similar rates.. 

(c) The given weights are for total demand For fixtures with both hot and 
cold water supplies, the weights for maximum separate demands may betaken 
as three-fourths the listed demand for supply 

D.3.6 Chart No. 1 gives the estimated demand in gallons 
per minute corresponding to any total number of fixture units. 
Chart No. 2 shows an enlargement of Chart No. 1 for a range 
up to 250 fixture units. 



137 



APPENDIX D 











■ T 


I 






1 


I 


! 




























^ 


^^ 






















^' 






























1 












/ 


^ 












Q 
Z 
< 

g 200 








y^ 


y 




















X' 


^-^ 


















100 




Y^' 




NO.I FOR SYSTEM PREDOMINANTLY FOR FLUSH VALVES 
NO 2 FOR SYSTEM PREDOMINANTLY FOR FLUSH TANKS 


/.' 


•'2 

























/ 

























1000 1500 2000 

FIXTURE UNITS 



Chart 1 ESTIMATE CURVES FOR DEMAND LOAD 













i 










_^ 
















1 ^ 


^^ 







1 — -^^ 




















_,_. 


-— - 




— 




^ 


^ 






_^— "" 


"2 












/ 


y 


,^- 


^--' "*' 


















y 


.^ ^ 

























20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 

FIXTURE UNITS 



Chart 2 ENLARGED SCALE DEMAND LOAD 



138 



SIZING THE WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM 



D.3.7 The estimated demand load for fixtures used inter- 
mittently on any supply pipe will be obtained by multiplying 
the number of each kind of fixture supplied through that pipe 
by its weight from Table D.3.5, adding the products, and then 
referring to the appropriate curve of Chart Nos. 1 or 2 to find 
the demand corresponding to the total fixture units. In using 
this method it should be noted that the demand for fixture or 
supply outlets other than those listed in the table of fixture 
units is not yet included in the estimate. The demands for 
outlets (such as hose connections, air conditioning apparatus, 
etc.) which are likely to impose continuous demand during 
times of heavy use of the weighted fixtures, should be esti- 
mated separately and added to the demand for fixtures used 
intermittently, in order to estimate the total demand. 

D.4 SIZING COLD-WATER-SUPPLY PIPING 

D.4.1 Pressure Loss. As water flows through a pipe, the 
pressure continually decreases along the pipe, due to loss of 
energy from friction. The problem is then one of ascertaining 
the minimum pressure in the street main, and the minimum 
pressure required for the operation of the topmost fixture. (A 
pressure of 15 psi is ample for flush valves, but reference 
should be made to the manufacturers' requirements. A minimum 
of 8 psi should be allowed for other fixtures.) The pressure 
differential thus obtained will be available for overcoming 
pressure losses in the distributing system and in overcoming 
the difference in elevation between the water main and the 
highest fixture. 

D.4. 2 Pressure Loss by Elevation. The pressure loss, in 
pounds per square inch, caused by the difference in elevation 
between the street main and the highest fixture, may be ob- 
tained by multiplying the difference in elevation in feet by 
the conversion factor 0.43. 

D.4. 3 Water Flow. When water flows through a pipe, fric- 
tion occurs as the result of the sliding of water particles past 
one another. If the pipe wall is rough, the roughness pro- 
jections cause additional friction, owing to the development of 
increased turbulence in the flowing water. As the water flows 
along a smooth pipe, the pressure decreases as a result of a 
dissipation of tnergy arising from the internal friction set up 
by viscosity of the water. This loss in energy is shown by 

139 



APPENDIX D 



the loss of pressure. The pressure loss is proportioned to the 
length of straight uniform pipes, and varies greatly with flow 
velocity, pipe diameter, and roughness of pipe. 

D.5 PIPE CLASSIFICATION 

D.5.1 On the basis of inside surface conditions, pipes 
may be classified as smooth, fairly rough, and rough, as fol- 
lows: 

D.5. 2 Smooth Pipe. The inside pipe surface shows no 
perceptible roughness. Pipes made of copper, brass, or lead 
may usually be classified as smooth. 

D.5. 3 Fairly Rough. All ordinary pipes, such as wrought 
iron, galvanized iron, steel, and cast iron, after a few years 
of usage, may be called fairly rough. 

D.5.4 Rough. Pipes that have deteriorated fairly rapidly 
for some 10 or 15 years after being laid, are classified as 
rough. 

D.6 FLOW CHARTS 

D.6.1 Charts 3, 4 and 5 give the pipe-friction losses cor- 
responding to these three types of pipes for various nominal 
diameters. 

Example 1 — A 2 1/2-inch fairly rough pipe supplies 100 
gpm of water. Find the friction loss in head if the pipe length 
is 200 ft. 

Solution — Enter Chart 4 at 100 gpm and move along this 
line until it intersects the 2 1/2-inch diameter line. From this 
intersection point, move vertically down and read 4.5 psi 
friction loss per 100 ft. of pipe length. Then the total friction 
loss will be 2 X 4.5= 9 psi. 



D.7 FITTINGS, VALVES, AND METERS 

D.7.1 The pressure losses in the distributing system will 
consist of the pressure losses in the piping itself, plus the 
pressure losses in the pipe fittings, valves, and the water 
meter. Estimated pressure losses for disc-type meters for 
various rates of flow are given in Chart No. 6. 

140 



SIZING THE WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM 



FRICTION LOSS — PSI PER 100 FT LENGTH 
0.1 0.2 OS'O.A 0.60.8 I 2 34568 10 20 30 405000 80 100 




0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.6 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 20 30 405060 80 100 

FRICTION LOSS — PSI PER 100 FT LENGTH 



141 



APPENDIX D 



FRICTION LOSS IN HEAD - PSI PER 100 FT LENGTH 
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 I 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 20 30 40 50 60 80100 




0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 I 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 20 30 40 50 60 80 100 

FRICTION LOSS IN HEAD -PSI PER 100 FT LENGTH 



Chart 4 



142 



SIZING THE WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM 



FRICTION LOSS IN HEAD-PSI PER 100 FT LENGTH 
0,1 2 0.3 4 6 0.8 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 20 30 40 50 60 80 100 




0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 I 2 3 4 5 6 8 1 

FRICTION LOSS IN HEAD - RSI PER 100 



20 30 405060 80100 

FT LENGTH 



D.7.2 Flow limits for disc-type meters, which may be re- 
garded as the limits of recommended ranges in capacities, are 
given in Table D.7.3. For information on other types of meters, 
the manufacturer should be consulted. 



143 



APPENDIX D 



to 6 
o 

-I 5 






4 5 6 7 e 910 



20 30 40 50 60 80 100 
FLOW - (,PM 



200 300 400 600 1000 



Chart 6 PRESSURE LOSSES IN DISK-TYPE WATER METERS 



Table D.7.3 PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS 
OF WATER METERS (a) 



Pipe 
In 


Size 


N 


ormal Test- 
Gp 


Flow 
■n 


L 


imits 


Minimum 

Test Flow 

Hours 




\ 




1 


to 


20 






\ 




\ 




2 


to 


34 






\ 


1 






3 


to 


53 






4 


I 


\ 




5 


to 


100 






^\ 


2 






8 


to 


160 






2 


3 






16 


to 


315 






4 


4 






28 


to 


500 






7 


6 






48 


to 1 


,000 






12 



(a) American Water Works Association Standards. 



144 



SIZING THE WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM 



D.7.4 Registration. The registration on the meter dial 
shall indicate the quantity recorded to be not less than 98 per 
cent nor more than 102 per cent pf the water actually passed 
through the meter while it is being tested at rates of flow 
within the specified limits (see Table D.7.3) under normal 
test-flow limits. There shall be not less than 90 per cent of 
the actual flow recorded when a test is made at the rate of 
flow set forth under minimum test flow. 

D.7.5 Chart 7 shows the variation of pressure loss with 
rate of flow for various types of faucets and cocks, based on 
experimental data obtained at the State University of Iowa. 



A 
B 
C, 

r. 

D' 

E 

F 

G 

H 



1/2 in. laundry bib (old style) 

Laundry compression faucet 

1/2 in. compression sink faucet (manufacturer 1) 

1/2 in. compression sink faucet (manufacturer 2) 

Gsmb. comp. bathtub faucet (both open; 

Comb, compression sink faucet 

Basin faucet 

Spring self-closing faucet 

slow self-closing basin faucet 



















^ 


.A 


















.D 


^B 










^^ — ^ 








"T^:^ 


'Z' r 








^^ 






^_^^^ 




— ^;^ 


^^^2 










^ 


^^^ 


^^:^ 








/ 




<^ 


^^ 












/ 


/ 


A 


^ 










^^ 


^ ^E 


/ 


^ 


'/ 








^ 







^G 


/ 


/ 


^ 


^ 


^^>-- 








^ 


H 


/ 




-^ 


^ 


^^ 
















/^ 


^^ 















PRESSURE LOSS— RSI 



145 



APPENDIX D 



D.7.6 The loss of pressure through any fitting or valve can 
be expressed in pounds per square inch for any given rate of 
flow. Experience has shown, however, that the simplest 
method of expressing losses in fittings and valves is to use 
the concept of an equivalent length of straight pipe. It has 
been found, for example, that a 1-inch, 90-degree elbow, in- 
troduces a loss which is equivalent to 2.2-feet of straight 1- 
inch pipe. Therefore, for each 1-inch, 90-degree elbow, 2.2-feet 
of 1-inch pipe are added to the total length of 1-inch pipe. 

D.7.7 Estimated pressure losses for pipe fittings and 
valves in terms of equivalent pipe lengths are shown in Table 

D,7.8. 



Table D.7.8 ALLOWANCE IN EQUIVALENT LENGTH OF 
PIPE FOR FRICTION LOSS IN VALVES AND THREADED 

FITTINGS 



Diameter 


90 Deg 


45 Deg 


90 Deg 


Coupling 


Gate 


Globe 


Angle 


of 


Standard 


Standard 


Side 


or 


Valve 


Valve 


Valve 


Fitting 


Ell 


Ell 


Tee 


Straight 

Run of 

Tee 








Inches 


Feet 


Feet 


Feet 


Feet 


Feet 


Feet 


Feet 


3/8 


1 


0.^, 


1.5 


0.3 


0.2 


8 


4 


1/2 


2 


1.2 


3 


0.6 


0.4 


15 


8 


3/4 


2.^ 


l.'^ 


4 


0.8 


0.5 


20 


12 


1 


3 


1.8 


5 


0.9 


0.(? 


25 


15 


1 1/4 


4 


2.4 


6 


1.2 


0.8 


35 


18 


11/2 


5 


3 


7 


1.5 


1.0 


45 


22 


2 


7 


4 


10 


2 


1.3 


55 


28 


2 1/2 


8 


5 


12 


2.5 


1.6 


65 


34 


3 


10 


6 


15 


3 


2 


80 


40 


3 1/2 


12 


7 


18 


3.6 


2.4 


100 


50 


4 


14 


8 


21 


4.0 


~> 7 


125 


55 


5 


17 


10 


25 


5 


3.3 


140 


70 


6 


20 


12 


30 


6 


4 


165 


SO 



D.7.9 Table l\7.10 lists the equivalent lengths for various 
special types of apparatus and fittings. The loss in water 
meters varies considerably with the design even in meters of 
the same nominal size. The values given in Table D.7.10 are 
ample for the well-known meters now on the market. 



146 



SIZING THE WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM 



3.7.10 



Table D.7.10 EQUIVALENT LENGTHS OF IRON PIPE TO GIVE 
SAME LOSS AS SPECIAL FITTINGS OR APPARATUS 





Nominal Diameter of Pipe 


Fitting Apparatus 


Y2 In. 


Yiln. 


1 In. 


IY4 In. 




Feet 


Feet 


Feet 


Feet 


30-gal. Vertical hot-water tank, ^4-in. pipe 


4 


17 


56 




30-gaL Horizontal hot-water tank, Yi-in. pipe 


1.2 


5 


16 




Water meters (No valves included) 










5/8 in. with Yj-in. connections 


6.7 


28 


90 




5/8 in. with ^-in. connections 


4.8 


20 


64 




3/4 in. with 54-in. connections 


3.4 


14 


45 




1 in. with 1-in. connections 


.... 


9 


30 


ii*5 


li^ in. with 1-in. connections 


.... 


4.4 


14 


54 


Water softener 


.... 


50 - 200 







Example 2 — Assxxme a minimum street-main pressure of 55 
psi; a height of topmost fixture above street main of 50 ft; a 
developed pipe length from water main to highest fixture of 
100 ft; a total load on the system of 50 fixture units; and that 
the water closets are flush-valve operated. Find the required 
size of supply main. 

Solution — From Chart No. 2 the estimated peak demand is 
found to be 51 gpm. From Table D.7.3 it is evident that sev- 
eral sizes of meters would adequately measure this flow. For 
a trial computation choose the 1 l/2-in. meter. From Chart 
No. 6 the pressure drop through a 1 1/2-in. disc-type meter for 
a flow of 51 gpm is found to be 6.5 psi. 

Then the pressure drop available for overcoming friction in 
pipes and fittings is 55 — (15 + 50 times 0.43 +6.5) = 12 psi. 

At this point it is necessary to make some estimate of the 
equivalent pipe length of the fittings on the direct line from 
the street main to the highest fixture. The exact equivalent 
length of the various fittings cannot now be determined since 
the pipe sizes of the building main, riser, and branch leading 
to the highest fixture are not known as yet, but a first ap- 
proximation is necessary in order to make a tentative selection 
of pipe sizes. If the computed pipe sizes differ from those 
used in determining the equivalent length of pipe fittings, a 



147 



APPENDIX D 

recalculation will be necessary, using the computed pipe sizes 
for the fittings. For the purposes of this example assume that 
the total equivalent length of the pipe fitting is 50 ft. Then 
the permissible pressure loss per 100 ft. of equivalent pipe is 
12 times 100/(100 +50) =8 psi. 

Assuming that the corrosive and caking properties of the 
water are such that Chart No. 4 for fairly rough pipe is ap- 
plicable, a 2-in. building main will be adequate. 

The sizing of the branches of the building-main, the risers, 
and fixture branches follow the principles outlined. For ex- 
ample, assume that one of the branches of the building-main 
carries the cold water supply for 3 water closets, 2 bathtubs, 
and 3 lavatories. Using the permissible pressure loss of 8 
psi per 100 ft, the size of branch determined from Table D.3.5, 
and Charts 2 and 4 is found to be 1 1/2 in. Items entering the 
computation of pipe size are given in TableD.7.11. 

Table D.7.n COMPUTATION OF BRANCH 
SIZE IN EXAMPLE 2 



Number and Kind 
of Fixtures 


Fixture Units 

(from Table 
D.3.5 & Note C) 


Demand 

(from 
Chart 2) 


Pipe Size 
(from 
Chart 4) 


3 flush valves 

2 bathtubs 

3 lavatories 

Total 


3X6 =18 
'/^(2X 2)= 3 
'4(3 X 1)= 2.25 

23.25 


38 


Inches 

V/2 



D.8 UP-FEED AND DOWN-FEED SYSTEMS 

D.8.1 The principles involved in sizing either up-feed or 
down-feed systems are the same. The principal difference in 
procedure is that in the down-feed system, the difference in 
elevation between the house tank and the fixtures provides the 
pressure required to overcome pipe friction. 

D.8. 2 The water demand for hose bibbs or other large- 
demand fixtures taken off the building main is frequently the 
cause of inadequate water supply to the upper floor of a build- 
ing. This condition may be prevented by sizing the distri- 
bution system so that the pressure drops from the street-main 



148 



SIZING THE WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM 



to all fixtures are the same. It is good practice to maintain 
the building main of ample size (not less than 1 in. where 
possible) until all branches to hose bibbs have been con- 
nected. Where the street-main pressure is excessive and a 
pressure reducing valve is used to prevent water hammer or 
excessive pressure at the fixtures, it is frequently desirable 
to connect hose bibbs ahead of the reducing valve. 

D.8.3 The recommended procedure in sizing piping systems 
may be outlined as follows: 

1) Draw a sketch of the main lines, risers, and branches in- 
dicating the fixtures served. Indicate the rate of flow of each 
fixture. 

2) Using Table D.3.5, compute the demand weights of the 
fixtures in fixture units. 

3) Determine the tota 1 demand in fixture units and, using 
Chart 1 or Chart 2, find the expected demand in gallons per 
minute. 

4) Determine the equivalent length of pipe in the main 
lines, risers, and branches. Since the sizes of the pipes are 
not known, the exact equivalent length for various fittings, 
etc., cannot be made. Add up the equivalent lengths starting 
at the street main and proceeding along the service line, main 
line in the building, and up the riser to the top fixture of the 
group served. 

5) Determine the average minimum pressure in the street 
main and the minimum pressure required for the operation of 
the topmost fixture. This latter pressure should be 8 to 15 
psi. 

6) Calculate the approximate value of the average pressure 
drop per 100 feet of pipe in the equivalent length determined 
in Item 4. 

Do this according to the following rule: 

100 

p =(P- 0.43 H - loy—f— 

where p ~ average pressure loss per 100 feet of equivalent 
length of pipe in psi 
P = pressure in street-main in psi 

li - height of highest fixture above street main, in feet 
L - equivalent length determined in Item 4. 

If the system is of the down- feed supply from a gravity tank, 

149 



APPENDIX D 



the height of water in the tank converted to pounds per square 
inch by multiplying 0.43 replaces the street-main pressure and 
the term 0.43// in the equation in Item 6 is added instead of 
substracted in calculating the ternj p. In this case H will be 
the vertical distance of the fixture below the bottom of the 
tank. 

7) From the expected rate of flow determined in Item 3 and 
the value of p calculated in Item 6, choose the sizes of pipe, 
from Charts 3, 4 or 5. 



150 



Appendix E 
SUGGESTED SECTIONS 



Since this Code does not contain a specific chapter on Administration, 
and since task committees are preparing such a chapter, the following 
data on Administration arepresented a« a guide to local authorities and 
may be revised to suit local conditions. 

Many requirements of an administrative character have been included 
in the applicable chapters of this Code. 

E.l TITLE AND SCOPE 

E.1.1 Title: National Plumbing Code. This ordinance shall 
be known as the National Plumbing Code, may be so cited, 
and will be referred to in this ordinance as this Code. 

The administration and enforcement of this ordinance shall 
be the duty of ..... who is hereby authorized to take such act- 
ion as may be reasonably necessary to enforce the purposes of 
this Code Such persons may be appointed and authorized as 
assistants or a,<^ents .,.,. of such Administrative Authority as 
may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this Code. 

E,L2 Scope,, The provisions of this Code shall apply to 
and govern plumbing as defined in this Code, including the 
practice, materials, and fixtures used in the installation, 
maintenance, extension, and alteration of all piping, fixtures, 
appliances, and appurtenances in connection with any of the 
following: Sanitary drainage or storm drainage facilities, the 
venting system, and thepublic orprivate water-supply systems, 
within or adjacent to any building or other structure, or con- 
veyance; also the practice and materials used in the installa- 
tion, maintenance, extension, or alteration of the storm-water 
or sewage system of any premises to their connection with 
any point of public disposal or other terminaL 

E.1.3 Facilities. It is recognized that certain facilities 
in or adjacent to public streets are referred to in this Code 
only a portion of which is under the ownership or the control 
of the owner or occupant of the building or premises to which 
this Code applies. 



151 



APPENDIX E 



E.2 LICENSE REQUIRED 

E.2.1 Master Plumber's License. No individual shall en- 
gage in the business of plumbing in the City of 

unless licensed as a master plumber under the provisions of 
this Code. 

E.2. 2 Supervision of Work. No individual, firm, partner- 
ship or corporation shall engage in the business of installing, 
repairing, or altering plumbing unless the plumbing work per- 
formed in the course of such business is under the direct 
supervision of a licensed master plumber. 

E.3 PLUMBERS' EXAMINING BOARD 

E.3.1 Board Personnel. There is hereby established a 
plumbers' examining board (hereinafter referred to as the board) 
to consist of noC fewer than four members. One member shall 
represent the board of health, one member shall be a master 
plumber, one member shall represent the public, and one mem- 
ber shall be a journeyman plumber. Each member of the board 
shall have had at least 5 years' experience in his respective 
field. The members of the board shall be appointed by the 



E.3. 2 Meetings of the Board. The board shall hold its 
first meeting not later than 30 days following the adoption of 
this ordinance. Thereafter the board shall meet at such in- 
tervals as may be necessary for the proper performance of its 
duties, but in any case not less than twice a year. 

E.3 -3 Examination and Certification. The board shall 
establish standards and procedures for the qualification, ex- 
amination, and licensing of master plumbers and journeyman 
plumbers, and shall issue an appropriate license to each per- 
son who meets the qualifications therefor and successfully 
passes the examination given by the board. The board shall 
keep an official record of all its transactions. 

E.3.4 Reexamination. Any person who fails to pass an 
examination as prescribed by the board may apply for reexam- 
ination after the expiration of 30 days upon payment of the 
regular examination fee. 

E.3. 5 Temporary Permit. The board may issue a temporary 
license pending examination, provided the applicant holds a 

152 



SUGGESTED SECTIONS 



similar license from an equivalent board. Such permit shall 
not be valid for more than ; days. 

E.4 EXAMINATION FEE 

E.4.1 Any person desiring to be licensed as a master 
plumber or as a journeyman plumber shall make written ap- 
plication to the board. Examination fees for master and jour- 
neyman licenses shall be $ and $ , respective- 
ly, payment of such fee to accompany the application. Exam- 
ination fees are not returnable. 

E.5 MASTER PLUMBER'S BOND 

E.5.1 A person who has been issued a master plumber's 

license shall execute and deposit with the 

a bond in the sum of $ , such bond to be conditioned 

that all plumbing work performed by the licensee or under his 
supervision shall be performed in accordance with the pro- 
visions of this Code and that he will pay all fines and penal- 
ties properly imposed upon him for violation of the provisions 
of this Code. A master plumber's license shall not be valid 
unless a bond is executed and deposited as herein provided. 

E.6 EXPIRATION AND REVOCATION OF LICENSE 

E.6.1 Yearly Fee. All licenses issued by the board shall 
expire on December 31 of the year in which issued but may be 
renewed upon payment of fees in the amount provided in sec- 
tion E.4 and E.5. Expired licenses may be renewed at any 

time upon payment of the penalty of $ for journeyman 

plumber and $ for master plumber. 

E.6. 2 Revocation. The board may revoke any license if 
obtained through nondisclosure, misstatement, or misrepre- 
sentation of a material fact, or if a penalty has been imposed 
on the licensee under section of this ordinance. Be- 
fore a license may be revoked, the licensee shall have notice 
in writing, enumerating the charges against him, and be en- 
titled to a hearing by the board not sooner than five days from 
receipt of the notice. The licensee shall be given an op- 
portunity to present testimony, oral or written, and shall have 
the right to cross-examination. All testimony shall be given 
under oath. The board shall have power to administer oaths, 
issue subpoenas, and compel the attendance of witnesses. The 

153 



APPENDIX E 



decision of the board shall be based on the evidence produced 
at the hearing and made part of the record thereof. A person 
whose license has been revoked shall not be permitted to - 
ply within one year from date of revocation. , 

E.7 USE OF LICENSEE'S NAME BY ANOTHER 

E.7.1 No person who has obtained a plumber's license 
shall allow his name to be used by another person either for 
the purpose of obtaining permits, or for doing business or work 
under the license. Every person licensed shall notify the 
board of the address of his place of business, if any, and the 
name under which such business is carried on and shall give 
immediate notice to the board of any change in either. 

E.8 PLUMBING STANDARDS 

E.8.1 Code Adopted. The National Plumbing Code is 
hereby adopted and all installations, repairs, and alterations 
of plumbing shall, from the effective date of this ordinance, be 
performed in accordance with its provisions. 

In the case of discretionary actions and determinations of 
the Plumbers' Examining Board, the relevant facts shall be 
considered and determinations made in the exercise of reason- 
able discretion and all such determinations shall be final in 
the absence of abuse of discretion. 

E.8. 2 Official Copy. Three copies of the National Plumb- 
ing Code shall be kept on file by the board for inspection by 
and use of the public and shall be marked with the words 
"City of , official copy." 

E.9 PERMIT FOR PLUMBING WORK 

E.9.1 Issuance of Permit- No plumbing work, unless ex- 
cepted in this section, shall be undertaken prior to the issuance 

of a permit therefor by the A permit shall be 

issued to a licensed master plumber, except as provided in 
E.9. 2. 

E.9. 2 Exception. Any permit required by this code may be 
issued to any person to do any work regulated by this code in 
a single-family dwelling used exclusively for living purposes, 
including the usual accessory buildings and quarters in con- 
nection with such building, provided the person is the bona 



SUGGESTED SECTIONS 



fide owner of such dwelling and that the same will be occupied 
by said owner and that said owner shall personally purchase 
-" " material and perform all labor in connection therewith, 

^ Application for Permit. Application for permit shall 

be made on suitable forms provided by The 

application shall be accompanied by fees in accordance with 
schedule of fees, 

E.9.4 Schedule of Fees. 

For Fee 

Each plumbing fixture and waste-discharging device 

New or reconstructed sewer connection o 

Construction or reconstruction of cesspool. 

Fiafch septic tank 

Each Water heater 

Each water-distribution system or service connection . 

Repair or alteration of any plumbing system 

Any permit requiring inspection, minimum fee ....... 

E.IO REQUIREMENTS FOR PLUMBING PERMITS 

E.10.1 Plans and Specifications. No permit shall be issued 
until plans and specifications showing the proposed work in 
necessary detail have been submitted to the .,. and 

the board has determined from examination of such plans and 
specifications that they give assurance that the work will con- 
form to the provisions of this Code, If a permit is denied, the 
applicant may submit revised plans and specifications with- 
out payment of additional fee. If, in the course of the work, 
it is found necessary to make any change from the plans and 
specifications on which a permit has been issued, amended 
plans and specifications shall be submitted and a supple- 
mentary permit, subject to the same conditions applicable to 
original application for permit, shall be issued to cover the 
change. 

E.10,2 Repairs, Repairs involving only the working parts 
of a faucet or valve, the clearance of stoppages, repairing of 
leaks, or replacement of defective faucets or valves may be 
made without a permit provided no changes are made in the 
piping to the fixtures. 

E,10.3 Protection of Water-Supply System. The.............. 

shall make such rules and regulations in furtherance of the 

155 



APPENDIX E 



purposes of this code and not inconsistent with the specific 
provisions of this code, for the installation, repair or alteration 
of air-conditioning systems, water-treatment equipment, and 
water-operated devices as maybe deemed necessary to properly 
protect the water-supply system. 

E.ll ENFORCEMENT 

E.11.1 Inspections and Tests. It shall be the duty of the 

to enforce the provisions of this Code 

and to make the inspections and tests required thereunder. 

E.ll. 2 Right of Entry. The shall, after 

proper identification, have the right to enter any premises for 
the purpose of inspecting any plumbing system at such times 
as may be reasonably necessary to protect the public health. 

E.12 PENALTY 

E.12.1 Any person violating any provision of this ordinance 

shall be punishable by fine of not less than dollars 

($ ) nor more than dollars ($ ) or imprisonment 

for not less than days nor more than days. 



156 



Appendix T.C. 

TRAILER COACH 
PLUMBING STANDARDS 



FOREWORD 

The primary objective of these standards is to provide a 
sanitary installation within a trailer coach. It is also of im- 
portance that a method or standard be established, agreeable 
to manufacturers of trailer coaches, that would coordinate the 
location of the sewer and water outlets which must be con- 
nected at a trailer park. 



The Coordinating Committee indicated at the meeting held 
on January 4 and 5, 1951, by motion, that the Trailer Coach 
and Trailer Park Standards be published as appendices to the 
Report of the Coordinating Committee for a National Plumbing 
Code indicating that the Standards were drawn up by the 
Trailer Coach Committee of the American Society of Sanitary 
Engineering. Motion was passed and accepted. 



The interest of the manufacturers of trailer coaches as well 
as of the operators of trailer parks has been considered to- 
gether with the welfare and safety of the public. 



Lists are now in progress at the National Bureau of Stand- 
ards in connection with plumbing in 'trailer coaches. The re- 
sult of these tests will serve as a further guide to the mem- 
bers of the Committee for future deliberations. 



Any questions on interpretation may be sent to Mr. Vincent 
T. Manas, Exec. Secy, National Plumbing Code Committee, 
4513 Potomac Ave., N.W., Washington 7, D.C. 



157 



APPENDIX T.C. 

T.C.I DEFINITIONS 

T.C. 1.1 Definitions of terms as defined in Chapter 1 shall 
apply except as otherwise specifically provided in this ap- 
pendix. 

T.C. 1.2 Trailer Coach shall mean a self-contained unit 
designed for the shelter of one or more persons as a residence 
or for other use as permitted by the Administrative Authority 
for the serving of drinks, food or as a comfort station and 
which can readily be moved or transported from one locality 
to another on its wheels and which is provided with plumbing 
facilities. 

T.C. 1.3 Sewer Connection is that portion of the drainage 
piping which extends as a single terminal under the trailer 
for connecting with the trailer park drainage system. 

T.C. 1.4 Water-Service Connection is that portion of the 
water-supply piping which extends as a single terminal under 
the trailer for connection with the trailer park water-supply 
system. 

T.C. 1.5 Administrative Authority. The Administrative 
Authority is the individual, official, department, or agency 
established and authorized by a State, County, city, or other 
political subdivision to administer and enforce the provisions 
of the plumbing code as adopted or amended. 

T.C. 1.6 Drainage System means and includes all the pip- 
ing within or attached to the trailer which conveys sewage or 
other liquid wastes to and including the sewer connection. 

T.C. 1.7 Plumbing. Plumbing is the practice, materials, 
and fixtures used in the installation, maintenance, extension, 
and alteration of all piping, fixtures, appliances, and ap- 
purtenances in connection with any of the following: sanitary- 
drainage or storm-drainage facilities, the venting system and 
the public or private water-supply systems, within or ad- 
jacent to any building, structure, or conveyance; also, the 
practice and materials used in the installation, maintenance, 
extension, or alteration of the storm water, liquid waste, or 
sewerage and water-supply systems of any premises to their 
connection with any point of public disposal or other accept- 
able terminal. 



158 



TRAILER COACH PLUMBING STANDARDS 



T.C.I. 8 Potable Water. Potable water is water which is 
satisfactory for drinking, culinary, and domestic purposes, and 
meets the requirements of the Health Authority having juris- 
diction. 

T.C.I. 9 Left Side of Trailer is defined as the side farthest 
from the curb when the trailer is being towed or in transit. 

T.C.2 GENERAL REGULATIONS 

T.C.2.1 Plumbing Systems. Plumbing systems including 
repairs and additions, hereafter installed shall conform with 
the provisions of this appendix. 

T.C.2. 2 Horizontal E)rainage Piping. Horizontal drainage 
piping shall be run in practical alignment at a uniform grade. 

T.C.2. 3 Obstruction to Flow. Any fitting, or connection 
which has an enlargement, chamber, or recess with a ledge, 
shoulder or reduction of the pipe area, that offers an obstruc- 
tion to flow through the drain, or any fitting, trap, or con- 
nection that offers abnormal obstruction to flow, is prohibited. 

T.C.2.4 Supports. Piping shall be securely supported to 
keep it in alignment without undue strains, or stresses, and 
provisions shall be made for expansion and contraction during 
travel. 

T.C.2. 5 Freezing. All piping and fixtures which would be 
subject to freezing temperatures when travelling through cold 
climates, shall be insulated to preclude the possibility of 
freezing. 

T.C.2. 6 Workmanship shall be of such character as to ac- 
complish the results sought to be obtained in this appendix. 

T.C.2. 7 Light and Ventilation. Water-closet compartments 
shall be provided with adequate light and ventilation. 

T.C.2. 8 Ratproofing. All openings through which piping 
or other conduits pass through floors or walls shall be proper- 
ly sealed with permanent attached collars of metal or other 
material that will prevent the passage of rats or other vermin. 

T.C.2. 9 Equipment Condemned. Plumbing equipment con- 
demned by the proper Administrative Authority because of 
wear, damage, or defects as a sanitary or safety hazard, shall 
not be reused. 



159 



w 



APPENDIX T.C. 



T.C.2.10 Connections to Plumbing System. All plumbing 
fixtiires, drains, appurtenances, and appliances used to re- 
ceive or discharge liquid or water-borne wastes shall be 
properly and individually connected by means of metal pipe 
or tubing to the common outlet of the trailer-drainage system. 
(See Trailer Park Standards.) 

T.C. 2. 11 Sewer Connection. A watertight connection be- 
tween the trailer-drainage system and the trailer-park sewer 
connection shall be made by means of a readily removable 
semirigid or flexible connectoracceptable to the Administrative 
Authority. (See Trailer Park Standards.) 

T.C. 2. 12 Location of Piping cm: Fixtures. Piping, fixtures 
or equipment shall be so located as not to interfere with the 
normal operation of windows, doors, or other exit openings. 
Operating devices shall be accessible for repair or servicing. 

T.C. 3 MATERIALS 

T.C. 3.1 Drainage and Vent Systems. Pipe and fittings for 
ihe drainage and vent systems shall be as provided in Chapter 
3 of the Code and as follows: 

(a) Copper tube with sweated joints. Type M 
(h) Galvanized steel, galvanized wrougnt iron, or galvanized 
ferrous alloy 

(c) Lead pipe not less than 1/8 inch wall thickness. 

(d) Fittings for the drainage system shall be American 
National Taper Threads, recessed type. Vent fittings may be 
galvanized, malleable, or cast iron, brass, or wrought copper. 
If lead is used, all joints shall be wiped. Wiped joints shall 
have an exposed surface on each side of the joint not less 
than 3/4 inch and at least as thick as the material being jointed. 

T.C. 3. 2 Water Piping. Water piping shall be brass, copper, 
wrought iron, open-hearth iron, steel or copper tubing, type L, 
with appropriate approved fittings. All ferrous pipe and fittings 
shall be galvanized. 

T.C. 3. 3 Used Materials are prohibited in the construction 
or installation of the water-supply system. 

T.C.4 FIXTURES 

T.C. 4.1 Quality of Fixtures. All plumbing fixtures shall 
be made of approved materials with smooth, impervious sur- 
face. 

160 



TRAILER COACH PLUMBING STANDARDS 



T.C.4.2 Trailer-Coach Fixtures. Plumbing fixtures in- 
stalled in the trailer shall be of materials that will withstand 
road shock and be so attached to the structure of the trailer 
as to be resistant to vibration or settling. 

T.C.4.3. Resistance to Shock. Resistance to shock shall 
be determined by tests over a period of actual use of one year 
or by equivalent simulated laboratory tests. 

T.C.4.4. Fixture Traps. Each plumbing fixture shall be 
provided with a trap containing not less than 2 in. water seal. 

T.C.4.5 Location of Traps. Traps shall be so located as 
to preclude the possibility of trap seal loss during transpor- 
tation or ordinary use. 

T.C.4.6 Water Closets foe Trailers 

(a) Water closets shall be constructed of such durable 
materials as to be transported in trailers over the highways 
without injury or impairing their capacity to operate. 

(b) Water closets shall not permit the spillage of trap seal 
contents during transit and shall perform in a sanitary manner. 

(c) It should not be possible to flush a water closet except 
when trailer is connected at a trailer camp to a water supply 
and sewage-disposal system. 

(d) Each water closet shall be provided with approved back- 
flow preventer or vacuum breaker device to prevent contami- 
nation of the potable-water system. 

(ej Water closets shall be provided with a water supply 
adequate to thoroughly cleanse the interior of the water closet 
when the valve is operated. 



T.C.5 DRAINAGE PIPING 

T.C.5.1 Installation. Horizontal piping shall be installed 
at a uniform slope and in no case less than 1/8 inch per foot 
slope. 

T.C.5. 2 The Size of Soil and Waste Piping shall be in ac- 
cordance with Table T.C.5. 3 

161 



APPENDIX T.C. 



Table T.C.5.3 (A) SIZE OF MAIN SOIL STACK 







Minimum Size 


Fixture Connections 




Through Roof, 
Inches 


More than six fixture units connected to stack 


3 


Six fixture units or less connected to the 


stack 


2 


Lavatory branch waste and trap 




I'A 


Sink branch waste and trap 




\V2 


Shower branch waste and trap 




I'A 


Bath branch waste and trap 




1K2 


Water closet branch waste four unit type 




3 


Water closet branch waste two unit type 




1^2 



Table T.C.5.3 (B) TRAILER FIXTURE UNIT RATINGS 





Fixture Units 


Water closet with 3-in. integral traps 


4 


Water closet with separate traps 


3 


Water closet - grinder type - with lV2-in. trap 


2 


Lavatory with less than 1-1/8-in. outlet 


1 


Sink with less than 1-1/8-in. outlet 


1 


Sink with larger outlets 


2 


Shower with less than 2-in. outlet 


2 


Shower with more than 2-in. outlet 


3 


Bathtub with less than 2-in. outlet 


2 



T.C.5.4 Trailer-Drain Outlet. Trailer-drain outlet of 
trailers shall terminate on the road side of the trailer at rear 
of wheel housing and be visible from thfe side of the trailer 
when in transit. Each outlet shall be provided with a tight 
cap or plug for closure when not connected to a sewer. The 
cap or plug shall be permanently affixed to the trailer body. 

T.C.5.5 Group Venting. A group of fixtures consisting of 
one water closet, or shower or bathtub, one lavatory, and a 
kitchen sink may be installed without individual fixture vents 
and as a stack-vented group. Each fixture branch shall be 
installed within the limits as given in Table T.C.5.6. 
Table T.C.5.6 MAXIMUM LENGTH OF UNVENTED BRANCH WASTE 



Size of Waste Pipe 
Inches 



3 

2 

1 1/2 

I 1/4 



Permissible Length 
Feet 



6 
5 

4 1/2 
4 1/2 



162 



TRAILER COACH PLUMBING STANDARDS 

T.C.5.7 Fixture Branches. Fixture-branch connections at 

the stack shall be made by the use of sanitary tees and the 
branch drain shall be sloped not more than 1/4 inch per foot. 

T.C.5.8 Wet-Vented Fixtures. A single bathroom group of 
fixtures may be installed with a drain from a back-vented 
lavatory or kitchen sink as a wet vent for a shower stall or 
or bathtub and for the water closet, provided that: 

(a) A wet vent for a shower or bathtub is wet vented through 
a l^inch branch waste when only a lavatory is installed on 
the branch. 

(b) A wet vent for a shower or bathtub is wet vented through 
a 2-inch branch waste when a lavatory and a sink are installed 
on the branch. 

T.C.6 VENT TERMINALS 

T.C.6.1 Location of Vent Terminal. Each stack vent shall 
terminate at least 2 inches above the trailer roof and shall be 
made watertight by proper flashing. 

T.C.7 INSPECTION, TESTS, AND MAINTENANCE. 

All plumbing work installed in trailers shall conform with 
all the requirements of this appendix. 

T.C.7.1 Tests 

(a) Drainage piping shall be tested and proved tight prior 
to the installation of the plumbing fixtures under a hydro- 
static pressure of not less than 25 lbs, and all water piping 
shall be tested to 100 lbs. 

(h) When fixtures have been set and connected, the system 
shall then be subjected to an additional air or chemical test 
of at least 1 inch of water. 

T.C.8 AIR QAPS 

T.C.8.1 Each fixture shall be provided with an air gap 
between the lowest opening from any pipe or faucet supplying 
water to a plumbing fixture and the flood-level rim of such 
fixture. 

T.C.8. 2 The minimum required air gap shall be measured 
vertically from the end of the faucet or orifice in accordance 
with the following paragraph. 



163 



APPENDIX T.C. 

T.C.8.3 Lavatory with effective openings not greater than 
1/2 inch in diameter shall be provided with a 1-inch minimum 
air gap. 

T.C. 8.4 Other fixtures with effective openings equal to 
these indicated in paragraph T.C.9.3 and when not affected by 
near vertical surfaces shall not be less than 2 inches; where 
affected by near vertical surfaces shall be not less than 3 
inches. 

Water closets may be provided with approved vacuum breakers 
or backflow preventers in lieu of air gaps. 

Vacuum breaker shall be installed on the discharge side of 
the supply valve and shall be located not less than 6 inches 
above the flood level of the fixture. 

T.C.8.5 Vacuum breaker* or backflow preventers shall be 
made of corrosion-resistant materials of design and proportions 
which will not deteriorate or deform under reasonable service 
conditions. 

T.C.8.6 Vacuum breakers or backflow preventers shall 
have been tested and approved to meet test and performance 
as required for backflow preventers ASA A40. 6-1943. 

T.C.9 WATER-SUPPLY SYSTEM 

• 

T.C.9. 1 Service Connection. Water-piping connection 
shall be not less than 3/4-inch from which 1/2-inch individual 
fixture branches shall be run to each plumbing fixture and 
water heater. 

T.C. 9. 2 Emptying of Water-Piping System. The water- 
piping system in the trailer for both hot and cold water shall 
automatically drain out upon disconnecting with the source of 
supply at the trailer park. 

T.C.9.3 Location of Service Connections. Each trailer 
shall be provided with a water-service connection located at 
the rear of the trailer, and shall be provided with cap and 
chain. 

T.C. 9. 4 Separation. The minimum distance between the 
sewer connection and the water connection of a trailer shall 
be five feet. 

T.C. 9. 5 Emergency Disconnection. The physical con- 
nection between the trailer and the trailer park shall be so 

164 



TRAILER COACH PLUMBING STANDARDS 



arranged as to be able to readily disconnect manually or auto- 
matically pull out when an emergency, such as fire, occurs. 

T.C.IO TERMINALS 

T.C.10.1 Sewer and water terminals shall be capped or 
plugged when the trailer is transported on the highways. 

T.C.IO. 2 Both connections shall be visible at the rear and 
side of the trailer coach when the trailer is transported on the 
highways. 

T.C.ll HOT WATER 

T.C.11.1 Where hot-water piping is provided, the trailer 
shall be provided with an approved type automatic water heater 
of not less than 5-gallon storage capacity. 

T.C.12 SAFETY DEVICES 

T.C.12.1 Standards. Each water heater shall be provided 
with a combination pressure-and-temperature relief valve 
which has been tested and approved or which meets the speci- 
fication requirements of the American Gas Association or the 
National Board of Casualty and Surety Underwriters. 

T.C.12.2 Relief Valves. Relief valves shall be installed 
not more than 4 inches from the top of the water heater. 

T.C. 12.3 Emptying. Each tank shall be provided with a 
piped and valved outlet so that it can readily be emptied to 
the exterior of the trailer. 

T.C. 12. 4 Water-working Pressures for Tanks. Hot water 
tanks shall be tested for not less than 300 lbs hydrostatic test. 



165 



Appendix T.P. 
TRAILER PARK PLUMBING STANDARDS 



FOREWORD 

In the preparation of the site for a trailer camp there are a 
number of basic requirements that should be analyzed before 
the actual design is made. Among the more important items 
the following are given as a guide: 

fa) Space requirements and locations for water-supply 
source; 

(h) Space requirements for the treatment plant in relation 
to water-supply source or location; 

fc) Location of treatment plant in relation to size of prop- 
erty, neighborhood, and trailer unit location, and particularly 
as it applies to the prevailing winds, and the neighboring 
population; 

(d) Water-supply source and its relation to sewage treat- 
ment; 

fe) Prior to the preparation of the final trailer park design 
the tentative plans and specifications should be submitted to 
the State Health Department or the Administrative Authority 
having jurisdiction over this work; 

ff) If the trailer park is located within the city jurisdiction 
the layout should likewise be submitted and approved by the 
local plumbing department. 



166 



TRAILER PARK PLUMBING STANDARDS 



The following standards have been prepared as a general 
guide for those who may wish to set up standards for Trailer 
Parks' Sanitary Facilities. 

T.P.I METHOD OF DISPOSAL 

T.Pol. L Approval. It is recognized that the most satis- 
factory and desirable method of disposing of the sewage in a 
trailer camp is through a public sewer, and every effort should 
be made to have these facilities extended within the camp, 
where possible. There is, however, the fact that this may be 
impracticable because a public sewer is not always available 
within a reasonable distance, in which case consideration 
should then be given to the construction of a community sew- 
age disposal system, the magnitude of which would depend 
upon the requirements of the State Health Department, the 
local authority having jurisdiction over this installation, and 
the trailer park occupancy. 

T,P.L2. Plans and Specifications. In the preparation of 
the site plan it must be borne in mind that all the State Health 
Departments generally require the submission of complete 
specifications and plans showing in detail the entire sanitary 
facilities and water-supply distribution for the project. 

T.P.2 RECOMMENDED PROCEDURES 

T.P.2.1. Detailed Information. Drawings and specifications 
should provide all necessary information, such as property 
boundary lines, orientation, grading, neighborhoods, usage of 
land within the adjoining neighborhood, name of ownership, 
architect's name, engineer's name, and all other pertinent 
data necessary for a thorough study of the nroject. 

T.P.2. 2 Preliminary discussions with the authority having 
jurisdiction over this project should include the following: 

(a) Type of sewage-treatment plant; 

(h) General design of the sewage-treatment plant; 

(c) Minimum standards for sewer system; 

(d) Discussion of type and size of trailer park; 

(e) Prior to the preparation of the final trailer park design 
the tentative plans and specifications should be submitted to 
the State Health Department or the Administrative Authority 
having jurisdiction over this work; 



167 



APPENDIX ToPo 



(f) If the trailer park is located within the city jurisdiction 
the layout should likewise be submitted and approved by the 
local plumbing department. 

T.P.3 TYPE OF DISPOSAL PLANT 

T.P.3.1 Type of System. The local Administrative Author- 
ity will determine the actual selection of the plant and system 
to be used. 

T.P. 3.2 Guide for Discussion. The following represents a 
guide for discussion with the Administrative Authority who is 
thoroughly familiar with the local conditions. 

(a) Up to 75 trailers, the use of septic tank and either a 
tile absorption field or sandfilter is recommended; 

(b) For 75 to 150 trailer units, sand filters should be se- 
lected; if there is space available trickling filters preceded by 
an Imhoff tank will be desirable; 

^cj For more than 150 trailer units, trickling filters and Im- 
hoff tank is recommended, with the additional requirement of 
chlorination facilities to be included to reduce odors at such 
time as they may occur; 

fd) Activated sludge with separate settling anti-digestion 
is recommended only where available space is restricted and 
where the maximum treatment is required for the operation of 
the park and the adjoining neighborhood to the park limits the 
scope of operation, and where 200 or more trailer units are to 
be served. 

T.P.4 SELECTION OF PLANT 

T.P. 4.1 Local Health Authority. Because of some specific 
needs in certain localities, the system to be installed in a 
particular trailer park should be based on the recommendations 
of the local health authorities. 

T.P. 5 SEWER INSTALLATION 

T.P. 5.1 Separate Trenches. The sewer should be general- 
ly installed in a separate trench from the water-supply dis- 
tribution. 

T.P. 5. 2 Materials. The sewer shall be constructed of 
durable materials which are corrosion-resistant and shall be 
installed as t© remain water-tight and be rootproof. 



168 



TRAILER PARK PLUMBING STANDARDS 

T.P.6 MATERIALS 

T.P.6.1 Cast-Iron Pipe. Cast-iron soil pipe and fittings 
with hqf poured leaded joints, 

T.P.6. 2 Vitrified-Clay Pipe. Vitrified-clay sewer pipe 
with hot poured or precast bituminized joints. 

T.P.6.3 Bituminized-Fibre Pipe. Bituminized-fibre sewer 
pipe with tapered type couplings and fittings of the same 
material as the pipe. 

T.P.6.4 Asbestos-Cement Pipe. Asbestos-cement pipe 
with rubber ring type joints or concrete pipe with hot-poured 
joints. 

T.P.6. 5 Filled-in- Ground. Sewers installed in filled or 
unstable ground shall be of cast-iron soil pipe, except that 
nonmetallic drains may be laid upon an approved pad. 

T.P.6.6 Calked Joints. Calked joints for cast-iron bell- 
and-spigot soil pipe shall be firmly packed with oakum or hemp 
and filled with molten lead not less than 1 inch deep. Lead 
shall be run in one pouring and calked tight. No paint, var- 
nish, or other coatings shall be permitted on the jointing 
material until after the joint has been tested and approve^. 

T.P.6.7 Hot-Poured Joints. Material for hot-poured joints 
for clay pipe shall not soften sufficiently to destroy the ef- 
fectiveness of the joint when subjected to a temperature of 
160 deg. P., nor be soluble in any of the wastes carried by 
the drainage system. The joint shall be first calked tight 
with jute, hemp, or other similar approved materials. 

T.P.6. 8 Tapered-Type Joints. Joints in bituminized fibre 
shall be made with tapered-type couplings and of the same 
material as the pipe. All joints between bituminized fibre 
pipe and metal pipe shall be made by means of an adapter 
coupling calked as required in paragraph T.P.6.6. 

T.P.6. 9 Asbestos-Cement Joints. Joints in asbestos- 

cement pipe shall be made with sleeve couplings sealed with 
rubber rings and of the same composition as the pipe. All 
joints between asbestos-cement pipe and metal pipe shall be 
made by means of an adapter coupling calked as required in 
paragraph T.p.6.6. 



169 



APPENDIX T.P. 



T. P. 6.10 Cement Joints. Cement joints are permitted when 
sewers are installed in a separate trench from the water suppjy. 

T.P. 6. 11 Sanitary Sewers. Sanitary sewers within the 
trailer park area shall not receive storm or surface water. 

T.P. 7 SLOPE ON SEWER INSTALLATIONS 

T.P. 7.1 Grade or Slope. Grade or slope for sewers shall 
be such as to maintain flow velocities within sewers at the 
rate of not less than two feet per second when flowing full. 

T.P. 7. 2 Pipe Sizes. The following table is presented as 
a guide in computing pipe size in relation to slope: 

Table T.P. 7.3 



Sewer Size in Inches 


Slope per Hundred Feet 


4 

6 

8 

10 

12 


15 in. 
8 in. 
5 in. 
3 1/2 in. 
3 in. 



T.P. 8 MANHOLES 

T.P. 8.1 Manholes. Manholes shall be provided in sewer 
installation in the follawing manner: 

(a) At the upper end of each main sewer line; 
(h) At the outer end of the main sewer; 

(c) At any point where the change of direction is 90 deg. or 
greater; 

(d) At each junction of two or more branch sewers; 

(e) At intervals of not more than 400 feet. 

T.P. 8.2 Laterals. Branch connections into main sewers or 
laterals shall be made by the use of 45-deg Y's. Short tees 
are prohibited. 

T,P.8.3 Individual Trailer Units. Individual trailer unit 
laterals shall not be less than 3 in. in diameter. 

T.P.9 SEWER SIZES 

T.P. 9.1 The sewer shall be sized in accordance with the 
following table of pipe sizes: 

170 



TRAILER PARK PLUMBING STANDARDS 



TabI 


e T.P.9.2 


Pipe Diameter in Inches 


No. of Trailer Units Connected 


4 

6 

8 

10 


50 

100 

400 

10000 



T.P.IO TRAILER OUTLET 

T. P. 10.1 Traps. Each sewer lateral shall terminate with 
a P-trap and then shall be extended to grade and terminate 
not less than 4 in. above grade. 

T.P.IO. 2 Protection. Extension through ground shall be 
protected by metal casing or concrete mount. 

T.P.IO. 3 Connector. Each outlet for trailer unit shall be 
provided with a flexible connector furnished by the trailer 
park operator. 

T.P.IO .4 Automatic Disconnection. Flexible connectors 
shall be so arranged as to readily clamp into the trailer coach 
outlet and the connection so designed that in case of emer- 
gency, such as fire, trailer coach may be pulled out and the 
connection automatically disconnected without damage to pip- 
ing or trailer coach. 

T.P.IO. 5 Length of Connector. Sewer outlet for connecting 
each trailer shall be located centrally so that a flexible con- 
nector of sufficient length (provided by the trailer park oper- 
ator) may connect with the trailer sewer outlet located on the 
right side of the trailer and just behind the wheel housing. 

T.P.U WATER-SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION 

T. P. 11.1 Private Water Supply. Where connection to a 
municipal water supply or public water system is not possible, 
it is essential that certain precautions be taken in the de- 
velopment of individual supplies. Consideration must be 
given to the hydrological, geological, and bacteriological fac- 
tors affecting the quantity and quality of available water. In 
many cases specific information on these matters may be ob- 
tained from the state or local health authorities. In any event, 
such authorities should be consulted prior to the development 
of any individual water supply. 



171 



V 



APPENDIX T.P. 



T.P.I 1.2 Contamination. A ground-water supply should be 
properly located, constructed, and operated in order to be 
safeguarded against contamination. 

T.P.I 1.3 Information. No matter what state or territory, the 
Board of Health has available data concerning public water 
systems and supplies. All can be obtained from these author- 
ities merely by asking, and the specific regulations are avail- 
able as well. 

T.P. 11.4 Health Department. When it is desired to build a 
trailer park, the state will be glad to furnish data as to prob- 
able sources of supply. They have records on nearby wells, 
and can give some ideas on possible depths for potable water, 
as well as possible volumes available. They can offer recom- 
mended methods on the construction of the wells. This is also 
available from any experienced drillers in the area. 

T.P. 11. 5 Consultation. It is desirable that the State Board 
of Health be contacted regarding the possibility of obtain- 
ing water, before there is any commitment to purchase prop- 
erty for a trailer park, as lack of proper water supply will 
nullify the use of the land for trailer park purposes. 

T.P. 12 MATERIALS 

T.P. 12.1 Materials. Material for water-distributing pipes 
and tubing shall be brass, copper, cast iron, wrought iron, 
open-hearth iron, or steel with appropriate approved fittings. 
All threaded ferrous pipe and fittings shall be galvanized 
(zinc-coated) or cement lined. When used underground in cor- 
rosive soil, all ferrous pipe and fittings shall be coal-tar 
enamel coated and the threaded joints shall be coated and wrap- 
ped after installation. 

T.P. 12.2 Water Characteristics. When selecting the ma- 
terial and size for water-supply pipe, tubing, or fittings, due 
consideration shall be given to the action of the water on the 
interior and of the soil, fill, or other material on the exterior 
of the piping. No material that would produce toxic conditions 
in a potable-water system shall be used for water distribution. 

T.P. 13 POTABLE WATER 

T.P. 13.1 Potable water. The water shall contain no chem- 
ical or mineral substances capable of causing unfavorable 
psysiological effects on those consuming the water. 

172 



TRAILER PARK PLUMBING STANDARDS 



T. P. 13.2 The water shall be free from pathogenic bacteria 
and other disease producing organisms. 

T. P. 13.3 Chlorination. The well should be chlorinated 
after construction or repair to remove any contamination which 
may have gained access to the supply. (State or local health 
department should be contacted relative to bacteriological 
testing.) 

T.P.14 CONTROL VALVES 

T. P. 14.1 Valves. In addition to the necessary valves on 
the distribution system each trailer unit outlet shall be pro- 
vided with a 3/4-in. control valve. 

T. P. 14.2 Backflow. Each outlet valve shall be constructed 
so that backflow cannot occur from surface-contaminated water 
or any other source. 

T. P. 14.3 Stop and Waste Valves. The use of ordinary stop 
and waste valves where aspiration or backflow can occur into 
the potable water system is prohibited. 

T.P.15 TRAILER OUTLET CONNECTOR 

T. P. 15.1 Distance. The trailer outlet shall have a distance 
of separation from the sewer outlet of not less than five feet. 

T.P.15.2 Disconnection. The flexible connector between 
trailer park outlet and trailer coach shall be of a type to read- 
ily permit quick attachment and in the event of emergency 
where a trailer coach may be pulled out it shall be so arranged 
to automatically disconnect without damaging the piping or 
trailer coach. 

T.P.15.3 Location. Trailer outlet shall be located at rear 
of lot. 

T.P.16 MISCELLANEOUS 

T. P. 16.1 Fire Protection. In the design of the water-dis- 
tribution system in a trailer park consideration for fire outlet 
stations throughout the park should be considered as it ap- 
plies to location and quantity of water necessary during an 
emergency period. 

173 



APPENDIX T.P., 



T.P.17 SIZING THE WATER-SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION 

T. P. 17.1 See Appendix "D" for guidance in sizing the pip- 
ing of the water-distribution system. 



174 



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